Combating the Twin Epidemics of HIV/AIDS and Drug Addiction
February 4, 2008
This report examines on 12 countries in Asia, Africa, and eastern Europe that have experienced significant increases in reports of injection drug use, injection-related HIV, or both during the past decade. These countries receive significant aid from the United States either directly through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) or through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. The report focuses on a particular intervention—medication-assisted maintenance treatment for drug dependence—an area in which the United States has considerable experience and strength and that offers an opportunity to expand engagement in global HIV efforts. U.S. efforts should be coordinated with those of recipient governments and other donors in an integrated, comprehensive approach that ultimately will be the most effective strategy to curb the rapid growth of injection-driven HIV epidemics.