States and opposition groups will continue to seek control over religious institutions and religious discourse for the foreseeable future. At stake for the countries analyzed in this study is more than merely elite competition for resources. The struggle is over the identity of the modern nation-state and the relationship between regimes and their citizens. Rather than producing a clear winner, the struggle will endure and change in the process. The battle over religious symbols, education, and discourse will shape the contours of politics and society in Africa for the next generation, and beyond.