Discussion on UNODC's Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2022
Marti Flacks: Thanks so much, folks in the room, we’re going to get started in just a second. Good morning, welcome to the Center for Strategic and International Studies. We’re here as we conclude National Human Trafficking Prevention Month to examine the state of trafficking in persons around the world. I’m Marti Flacks, director of the Human Rights Initiative here at CSIS and Khosravi chair in principled internationalism.
For the first time since the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crimes started collecting data on trafficking in persons, the organization found a decrease in the number of detected victims globally from just under 50,000 detected victims in 2019 to just under 47,000 in 2020. This sounds, as first glance, like it should be a good-news story, but in fact these figures demand further interrogation, especially when we look at figures coming out around global estimates of modern slavery, more than 50 million people around the world.
And so we need to understand where these numbers come from and, in particular, what impact the pandemic had on the phenomenon of trafficking, both by limiting the ability of traffickers to find their victims and move them across international borders, but also in making it more difficult for law enforcement and for public service organizations to discover, document, and protect victims. A particularly poignant finding from a report that we’ll discuss today, the UNODC’s new global report on trafficking in persons, is the fact that most trafficking victims save themselves. They self-identify and they find assistance rather than being identified by external actors.
The strategies that we’ve developed over the years to tackle human trafficking have come a long way, and we’ve made significant progress, but these figures and these findings reveal that we still have a very long way to go. And so we’re delighted to have with us today a group of experts both from UNODC as well as the U.S. Department of State to talk about where exactly we are in this process of combatting trafficking in persons, and their insights into where we need to go from here.
We’re going to start our event today with remarks from a special guest, Ambassador Cindy Dyer, newly confirmed as the State Department’s ambassador at large to monitor and combat trafficking in persons. Ambassador Dyer’s very new to this role, and we’re delighted that she’s onboard, but she is no stranger to this issue. In fact, she’s been steeped in it for more than three decades as a human rights advocate and as a lawyer, previously serving on the Independent Review Commission on Sexual Assault in the Military, vice president for human rights at Vital Voices Global Partnership, and directing the Office on Violence Against Women at the U.S. Department of Justice, as well as beginning her career at the local level as a specialized domestic violence prosecutor in Dallas, Texas.
Following her opening remarks, my colleague, Erol Yayboke, who directs our Project on Fragility and Mobility, is going to lead a really important and interesting panel discussion with a group of experts on this report and their findings. We’re going to open the floor after that to questions from the audience in the room. So please think about the questions you want to ask this group of experts. And we will also invite questions via our online audience. So those online can submit questions at csis.org. And we welcome your participation in this conversation as well.
But now, with no further ado, I’d love to welcome to the stage Ambassador Cindy Dyer. (Applause.)
Ambassador Cindy Dyer: Thank you, Ms. Flacks, for that very kind introduction. And it is such a pleasure to be here with all of you for this important event to discuss the findings of the U.N. Office of Drugs and Crimes 2022 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, and its implications for our anti-trafficking efforts going forward. On behalf of my office, I would like to thank UNODC, the U.N. Information Center, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies for cohosting this event. This, as Ms. Flacks said, is one of my very first public appearances as ambassador-at-large to monitor and combat trafficking in persons. And it is an honor to be here today to support UNODC’s work.
UNODC is an important partner to the TIP office. They are the guardian of the U.N. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, or the Palermo Protocol. Today, the Palermo Protocol enjoys nearly universal ratification, with 180 states parties. It provides an important framework to, one, prevent and combat trafficking in persons; two, protect and assist the victims of such trafficking with full respect of their human rights; and, three, promote and facilitate cooperation among states parties to meet those objectives. All states parties, including the United States, should continually strive to more effectively implement the protocol.
The TIP office also supports the normative and programmatic work of UNODC. We currently provide more than $19 million to support a variety of their initiatives in 41 countries. UNODC is working in Latin America to strengthen the capacity to identify, refer, and assist Venezuelan victims of trafficking, in Honduras to train and mentor a network of investigators and prosecutors to bring traffickers to justice, and in Brazil to conduct innovative research and develop interventions that lower the rates of trafficking in the gold mining sector. In Europe, UNODC is building a network of prosecutors with mentors from other European states, while in Africa they have been working for many years to successfully improve the legal frameworks that address human trafficking.
We are also really proud to support UNODC’s normative work in Vienna, which brings together country experts to share promising practices and learn from one another. UNODC is truly an invaluable partner in our work. UNODC’s global report on Trafficking in Persons is important research for all of us working to prevent and combat this crime. The results of this year’s report come from robust collection of, and information reported by 141 states parties, including the United States.
The report underscores and complements what the department’s own Trafficking in Persons Report has found over the past several years, that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global anti-trafficking response were pronounced and significant. And that it and other threats, including conflict and climate change, continue to challenge the capacities of authorities around the world to respond adequately by identifying victims, supporting survivors, and ensuring traffickers are held accountable.
Both UNODC’s report and our own Trafficking in Persons Report substantiate these findings and other key takeaways. Both reports note a significant drop in global convictions between 2019 and 2020. And the U.S. TIP report shows how this unsettling trend continued into 2021. As a former prosecutor, this is particularly concerning to me, and means that despite our efforts traffickers around the world are currently operating with more impunity, not less. Conflict and climate change are also exacerbating vulnerabilities and putting more people at risk of trafficking.
At the Department of State, we are focused on addressing these and other root causes of human trafficking. And we will continue to assess increased trafficking risk due to both slow-onset climate-related change and sudden-onset climate-related disasters, to better inform how governments can improve efforts to combat trafficking. Programmatically, we are also investing in ways to reduce the vulnerabilities to trafficking from climate change. We currently have two programs, one in Kenya and on in Bangladesh. And we look forward to learning more from them.
Existing vulnerabilities are a key consideration. We recognize that members of underserved and marginalized communities face particular risks to trafficking in addition to systemic inequities they face in accessing support and assistance from law enforcement and other social services officials. UNODC’s reporting on risks and identification by gender give insight into one key area of this, because norms and stereotypes around gender, gender roles, and expected behaviors affect how anti-trafficking responses have been shaped and who is most at risk. Stakeholders must consider these effects and consequences of gender norms and stereotypes when building their anti-trafficking responses. With the number of cross-border trafficking cases detected down by more than 20 percent, these internal vulnerabilities are all the more important.
The panel speakers will go into more detail on these and other findings, but I wanted to highlight these points because they clearly illustrate how governments need to redouble their efforts to proactively identify all victims, provide protection, support survivors, prevent trafficking, even in the face of those new and complex challenges, and ensure that traffickers are held accountable. I take this call to action very seriously in my new role as the U.S. government’s ambassador-at-large to monitor and combat trafficking in persons. And I look forward to partnering with all of you to make sure the Department can advance these priorities as robustly and effectively as possible.
But I’d like to end on a hopeful note. Informed by UNODC’s report, and the experiences of the TIP Office, amid the report’s sobering findings were glimmers of encouraging courage and resilience. While the report found that governments identified fewer victims, especially children, it also found that increasingly victims themselves are self-identifying. They are escaping from traffickers’ coercive control and reaching out to authorities on their own. Even when government systems drew down or focused elsewhere during the height of the pandemic, victims and survivors continued to bravely step forward.
While we cannot, and should not, rely on victims to self-identify, and while systems globally need to do much more to proactively identify them, the strength of survivors evidenced here is profound. The department highlighted this resilience and the centrality of survivors in its 2021 and 2022 TIP reports. We continue to celebrate the adaptability and dedication of survivors, and all those who combat human trafficking in the wake of the pandemic, and in the face of a rapidly changing world. And we recommit ourselves to learning from survivors’ experiences and bringing trauma-informed and survivor-informed approaches to all that we do.
Thank you so much for the opportunity to share these thoughts. I am sorry that I am going to miss today’s incredible panel, which includes Angela Me, the head of UNODC’s research branch, Ilias Chatzis, head of UNODC’s human trafficking and migrant smuggling section, and our very own Desirée Suo Weymont, the TIP Office’s senior coordinator for reports and political affairs. I look forward to learning more about UNODC’s latest findings and working together with all of you to chart the way forward. Thank you so much for having me. (Applause.)
Erol Yayboke: Hello, everyone. And welcome, again, to the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Welcome, in particular, to our friends who have come in person. It’s great to see actual faces, as opposed to names on Zoom screens. To those of you joining online, it’s great to see you virtually as well. Thank you for taking the time to be here.
Before we launch into the panel, I wanted to thank a few people. First and foremost, my friend and colleague Marti Flacks, who gave great welcoming remarks. I am grateful for any chance I get to collaborate with the Human Rights Initiative here at CSIS, and in particular Marti. Thanks to Abby Edwards, Lauren Burke, and Angeles Zúñiga from our teams, respectively, for helping pull this off. And, of course, to our world-class streaming and broadcasting team, who’s making this happen.
So the ambassador introduced all of you, so I don’t have to do that right away, which is a really nice way of starting. And I really appreciated her thoughts. Desirée, please pass on our thanks to her when you get back to the office. But I wanted to start, Ilias, if I could, with you. So Ilias – as the Ambassador said, Ilias Chatzis is the chief of UNODC’s human trafficking and migrant smuggling section. Ilias, I think you’ve been with UNODC for a couple of years, slash decades. (Laughter.) You started as a child prodigy, probably. But you’ve had a few different roles.
And now in this certain – this particular role that you have here, you’re really understanding from the sort of U.N. Office of Drugs and Crime perspective, from an enforcement perspective what the difference between smuggling and trafficking and irregular migration, I feel like some folks conflate all of these terms. And I thought, before we dive into Angela’s presentation of the report and Desirée’s remarks as well, I thought maybe we could just take a step back and make sure that everybody in the room and online is on the same page.
So what’s the difference between smuggling, and trafficking, and irregular migration, and other kinds of irregular movement of people? And why are we focused on trafficking today?
Ilias Chatzis: So thanks so much also for inviting us today and for hosting this event. I think people are right to be confused because these two crimes become very fused on the ground, and it’s very difficult to discern what is what. And imagine countries that are small geographically, not very resourced, and they see all these smuggling flows go through their territories, with horrible crimes committed against the smuggled migrants, including trafficking in persons.
But these are legally two distinct crimes. When we’re talking about trafficking in persons, we’re talking about one of the most serious forms of exploitation of human beings, equal to slavery. And it’s for different purpose. It’s exploitation for, I would call it, forced prostitution, for forced labor, even for the removal of body organs from the victims.
Smuggling is basically the facilitation by criminal groups of the irregular entry of migrants to a third country, when they don’t have the right papers to go there. So, you know, the common element between the two, and one that made the international community regulate against them, is also the organized crime involvement, which is quite prominent in both crimes, which I think the report highlights quite well.
Mr. Yayboke: Thank you for clarifying that. And I think this focus on trafficking, this particularly vile and illegal – both in international law and just about any law I would imagine around the world – that’s going to be the focus of our conversation here. And so, Angela Me, I would love to turn to you. And I believe you have a couple of slides that we’ll queue up here for folks in the room and for folks at home.
Angela, you are the chief of the research branch at UNODC, under which I’m assuming you were the chief author, or one of the chief authors, of this really 186, I believe – (laughter) – really comprehensive, really excellent report. I did read it. And it is annotated in my office. I didn’t want to bring the tome down here, but it really goes through a lot of very interesting things. You break it down in very understandable ways. For those who want to dive into methodologies, there’s that. For those who just want the high-level takeaways, there’s that. So if you could just give us a little bit of a flavor of what folks can find. I would love for it to be a teaser. I want everybody to go and read it. But just a few high-level takeaways.
Dr. Angela Me: So first of all, I wanted to say, in this map, you see basically the data that you can find in the report from all of these countries. You notice some of the gaps. And for those of us that deals with information, data, and statistics, it’s not a surprise that some part of Africa, that also some part important in Asia, we have gaps. But so that’s at least to give you the reach of information and data that you find in the report.
Now, I wanted to show you what’s the headline, the first finding. You see here a trend of the rate of – number of victims that have been identified globally over the years, since we started the monitoring. And you see that there has been a continuous increase in the number of victims. I wanted to underline, this is the number of victim detected. It is not the total number of victims that we have in the world. And so – and that brings also some – it’s important to understand, to interpret these results.
And you see here – you see that for the first time we have seen a decrease. A decrease of 11 percent on the number of victim and rate of victims detected. And you see there on the right the regions that have been most affected by this decrease. And you see particularly Central America, for example. And the different colors that you see there, light and dark, are male and female, just to have a snapshot of – you know, but you see basically almost a decrease, not everywhere, but both for male and females.
So what does this mean? And how can we interpret this result? Well, this is basically the result of three issues. One is basically the reduced capacity of authorities in detecting victims. And we have seen, by the way, this also in other forms of crime. So it’s not only trafficking in person. But there is clearly – but we have seen also the narrative of the information that the countries have provided together with the data, so to understand how to interpret the data.
There has also been reduced opportunities for trafficking, because particularly for certain forms of trafficking, sexual exploitation for example, but also – and we see particularly in victims of sexual exploitation – are moved in more hidden locations. So again, increasing, again, the difficulty in identifying the victims, find them, rescue them. And so in a way, overall this is a picture that shows how during COVID we have not really seen a decrease in the trafficking. But what we have seen is a decrease on the capacity to address trafficking around the world.
Mr. Yayboke: Yeah, just a finer point there. A decrease in identifications – and Marti talked about this and you just talked about this, but just so we’re all clear – a decrease in identifications does not mean a decrease in trafficking, full stop.
Dr. Me: No, definitely. And we will see also, and we will have a chance to discuss later, also what it means in terms of actually an increase in impunity. That’s what clearly it is.
One of the main findings also that you see is, you know, looking at the house trafficking in person has changed over the years. Here you see the change in the typology of victims involving trafficking in persons. And you see that in 2004, when we started the monitoring, the prevalence was – the highest share was for women and girls – adults. And now you see the latest data that we have, that actually we have an increased number of men detected, an increasing number of girls, and increased number of boys.
And this is also reflected in the change also in the kind of exploitations. Even in 2004, we were seeing mainly sexual exploitation. Now we see really – we have seen over the years an increase in the trafficking for forced labor. And that’s also reflected the typology of the victim, because typically men are more involved in forced labor, and women and girls more on sexual exploitation.
And it’s also important to notice, there on the right, you see basically the latest information, what is the share of the different type of exploitation. And you see again, as I was saying now, sexual exploitation and forced labor basically are the same. But it’s important also to notice 10 percent for trafficking for criminal activities. So people that are forced and exploited to undertake criminal activities. And we’re seeing also this on the web, on, you know, having this. So that’s really important to notice, the emergence and the increase of this type of exploitation.
So basically, we have – and, by the way, mandated by the U.N. General Assembly. So all the countries in world basically ask us to do this report in a regular basis, every two years. And so based on that mandate – and we see also the commitment of the countries. So we collect data every year from all member states around the world. And we ask information about the victims that they detect. And, you know, the characteristics of these victims. But also, and then particularly for example, we ask about the citizenship, all the returns of victims, so that we are able to estimate the flows. You will find a lot of maps in our report. That really – that shows that flows around the world, from some regions, countries, to other regions.
And so we bring together – if you want to, we connect the dots in trying to understand how this source of transnational organized crime form really operates. But then we have also complemented this quantitative, if you want, hard data, with qualitative data. So the report is also based on an analysis of more than 800 court cases, that we have collected from more than 80 countries, you know, to really deep dive into the stories of the victims, and really to understand all of these dynamics on, you know, how victims are rescued, how – what kind of organized crime groups are behind the things, what kind of, for example, violence they effected. All of this qualitative information that you see in the report are based on these court cases.
Mr. Yayboke: That’s interesting. And I’m noting that the ambassador also is a former prosecutor. And so there’s no coincidence. My friend and colleague Marti Flacks is a lawyer. There’s no coincidence that this space overlaps very heavily with sort of legal world. Desirée Suo Weymont is senior coordinator for the Reports and Political Affairs Team at the State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. So her boss is Ambassador Dyer. I’m sure you are very happy to have someone in that seat to whom to report. And if you’re not happy, let’s just keep that between us.
But I’m assuming, as senior coordinator on the RPA team you, like Angela, have some responsibility over the State Department’s own Trafficking in Persons Report that you produce. So what is your report? And how does it differ from the UNODC one? And maybe what are some complementary takeaways or top lines from your report?
Desirée Suo Weymont: Sure. Well, first, thank you for the question, Erol. And thank you for inviting us from the State Department to join our UNODC counterparts today. This is an important conversation and we’re really happy to be here to dig in.
So, yeah. For starters, let me just start by saying that UNODC’s Global Report is a complement, right, to the work we are doing and the report we are doing, which covers 188 governments around the world, looking at the year-on-year efforts of governments to address trafficking – labor trafficking and sex trafficking. This differs a bit, slightly, from our UNODC colleagues – excuse me – and their focus, which is a bit multiyear, a bit more global and regional. (Coughs.) Excuse me.
So, right, as we dig in and reflect on the State Department’s report, we rely on the minimum standards that are enshrined in U.S. law to guide the assessment that we are doing. And I will note here that these largely align with the articles within the U.N. Palermo Protocol. So as we are going about this assessment on these government efforts, we are really looking at their ability to – and their efforts to then align to these commitments and take action in accordance with these commitments. Our report is also an annual report. So doing it a bit more routinely.
And, in addition, you know, as we work through that assessment we are considering overall whether governments are making efforts to meet these minimum standards. And so we have a ranking. That is what, you know, the report is maybe most known for then, whether governments are then meeting those standards, if they are taking increasing and significant efforts to meet them over the year.
Of course, beyond the individual country assessments, we also cover thematic issues and focus on key topics of interest. And in these exact ways, this is where I want to emphasize that our report does also document many of the very same trends that our UNODC counterparts have found in their report. For example, right, the focus on climate change and how this is exactly exacerbating vulnerabilities around the world. You know, that’s something we covered and featured in our latest 2022 TIP Report.
So hopefully we can talk more about some of the similar findings. I think in addition on the victim identification decrease, this is one in particular I think really deserves more conversation and focus. It’s especially concerning since this is the place where really government efforts should start, right, with robust victim identification. So it is especially concerning to see these decreases.
Mr. Yayboke: Definitely. And I would love to get into climate. I’d also love to get in – the ambassador mentioned gender dynamics. And I’d love to dig a little bit deeper on how this is affecting. Angela, your point about how this used to be really a phenomenon that was dominated by women and girls, and now it’s still a majority is women and girls but less than it was, is very interesting.
But before we get there, Ilias, you know, already the issues that we have talked about cover a lot of different spaces. And we all know the U.N. is a very big place, and there’s elements even outside the United Nations that care about this issue, or issues that abut, relate to trafficking. So can you talk a little bit about where this report and UNODC more broadly fits into the broader universe of who cares about trafficking and is trying to do something about it?
Mr. Chatzis: First of all, as you know, this report’s been coming out over a number of years. And I think the type of data that come out of this report have become so well recognized that some of the data that this report has produced have become standard in our arguments over trafficking responses. For example, the large number of victims. This report is the one that established that one third – one third – of all these millions of victims are children. And this is, like, it’s crazy. Second, the prevalence of sexual exploitation for women – for the trafficking of women. All of these elements came out of this report. So this report actually is the source of a lot of the responses that the U.N. itself is putting in place against this crime.
Now, our office has also the mandate to coordinate, if I could say that, the work of all the U.N. agencies on trafficking in persons. We work very closely with IOM on migration issues, with HCR on the refugees, OHCHR on human rights. And all of us are gathered in one group called, which meets very regularly. It has now 31 agencies. We’re very proud of that. It started with six agencies maybe eight years ago, and now we are 31. So all of the U.N. agencies with even mandates that are not immediately relevant, but are relevant, for example, WHO or Interpol, outside the U.N. system of agencies, are part of this group. And we have opened it also to regional organizations. So the Organization for American States is a member. The Organization for Security and Cooperation.
And this group is producing policy papers on key elements of the crime. And this is the distilled knowledge of all these organizations in their respective mandates about what countries can do in this specific area to address trafficking in persons. And there is, you know, a whole series of policy papers that we’re looking at. One of them will be now on, for example, domestic servitude, and the prevalence of that form of trafficking.
Mr. Yayboke: Angela and Desirée, you both mentioned – all of you, and the ambassador – mentioned the pandemic and how this changed things. If I could double-click on that for a second and talk about what the difference was, say, if we were having this discussion in January 2020 versus having this discussion now. What’s different because of the pandemic? Maybe Angela, and then we can go to Desirée.
Dr. Me: Yeah. Well, as the data also show, that in a way until – before the pandemic, we were heading – going toward a story of – not success, because we will never be a success until there is at least – even if there is only victim of trafficking. But, you know, we would see also countries going – applying new legislation to be in compliance with the protocol. So in a way, a story that was, you know, hope – would give hope. You know, we have increasing efforts, et cetera.
But what we have seen in the pandemic, not only the decrease we have seen in the detection of victims, but also a sharper decrease on the conviction, that really shows how much really the state has responded less to this, as Ilias said, you know, the most serious form of crime affecting really the people. And so we had a decrease of almost 30 percent on the convictions. And particularly in those regions where we know there are a lot of victims.
And we have seen also particularly a link between those region where we see more victims leaving the region – so, you know, going – that’s where the convictions have even decreased further. So it really shows how – also, the impact, that when the state do not identify victims, when the criminal justice system is not efficient in addressing the problem, then there are more victims that leave the country, and we see them around the world.
Mr. Yayboke: You know, I was reading the report, and one of the things that I found really interesting was actually trafficking was identified mainly in public spaces before – bars and streets. And, of course, those places weren’t available as much during the pandemic. And so we’ve sort of entered this more sort of difficult to understand, difficult to track place, because of the pandemic. And, of course, that’s why maybe these decreased numbers correlate, obviously.
Ms. Weymont: Yeah, thank you. So I think it’s important to focus on the data, maybe for starters, and then capacity also, as a complement. So in the data, what we’ve seen in our global data also aligns exactly to what you all have said. So maybe just quickly reflecting on the 2022 TIP Report, which covers from April 2021 through March of 2022. Maybe, more or less, we could say the second year of the pandemic. We saw increased – I should say – ongoing – let me correct myself. Ongoing decreases in the victim identification numbers. So that very first year I think we saw an 8 percent decrease, and then that increased again. So overall, over these past two years I think we’re at 24 percent of a reduction in the number of victims identified.
When reflecting on the law enforcement side, as Angela said, yes, on the convictions especially we saw this drop significantly over that first year of the pandemic. We did, though, in this latest report start to see some increase back. So I think some hope there. We did have also several governments that we were able to document in the report were newly taking on efforts maybe that had been lacking for years, or maybe these were governments who had never before had a prosecution or conviction. So we do see some rays of hope in that, if I might say. And then hopefully, right, this will start to turn around.
When reflecting on capacities, though, of course, why are the numbers down? Why is this happening? Across the TIP Report, across the country narratives, the numbers of our team at the office based on the information shared by governments and our many embassies around the world really document in detail the capacity impacts that we’ve been made aware of. So when courts were closed for six months, when they were closed in certain portions of a country, right, that was clearly noted in our report, but then also, of course, that had impacts on then the ability for those cases to move through those law enforcement systems.
We did, again, maybe a little hopeful note, see some governments making efforts to still continue, to still adapt, using technology and, even beyond the law enforcement side, in terms of protection. Finding ways to support victims still virtually or through other means. Or where, say, maybe quarantines were happening or migrant workers were being sent home from a country, that then targeted screening might have happened. So I just and that, as we have seen some of these signs of hope where governments have been able to adapt and adjust in that crisis. Even with these broader health concerns we’ve seen at least some of that happening.
Mr. Yayboke: Let’s talk about climate change for a little bit, because when we think about global existential challenges, for the last few years we’ve been stuck in our basements talking about the pandemic, but of course there is this overriding climate crisis that gets a lot of attention. I think when a lot of people think about trafficking, their mind maybe doesn’t go immediately to climate change. And yet, it was a big part of this report. And I think it’s a big part of what y’all at the State Department talk about as well. Why is that?
Dr. Me: Well, we have seen over the years that clearly the victims that are more affected by trafficking person are the most vulnerable. Vulnerable in terms of – we have seen issues relating also to mental health, but also vulnerability in the socioeconomic status of a victim. So every time that there is affecting socioeconomic status or health in a community, clearly the risk increases. And this has not been documented enough. This is really, I think, a challenge we will have all of us, that’s really interesting to understand, the trafficking in person. There’s still a lot bigger agenda out there in terms of research of climate change and trafficking.
But it’s been – started to be documented. And we have documented in the report that in the Philippines, in Ghana, in the Caribbean islands, where big events that have been, you know, a typhoon or these kind of things, will basically eradicate families, community from their places. And then that’s where has been documented an increasing in the trafficking. And it’s interesting to notice that typically some of these events also affect the communities that engage in agriculture, in fishing. And when we look at the trafficking in person for forced labor, we see that these are then the economic sectors that are most affected. And so this, again, increased that vulnerability, particularly on the trafficking for forced labor, on those areas where we have seen clearly a vulnerability, particularly for trafficking.