Friendshoring the Lithium-Ion Battery Supply Chain

The Processing and Refining Stage

Reforming the lithium-ion supply chain constitutes a critical cornerstone of US foreign policy. The first in a series of three, this report discusses the processing and refining stage of the lithium-ion supply chain. It evaluates domestic efforts to ramp up extraction and processing capabilities as well as “friendshore” portions of the supply chain to economic partners and allies in light of China’s dominance. The report closes with a set of recommendations to better leverage economic and trade tools to enhance access and processing of critical minerals and materials, with a focus on expanding critical mineral agreements with allied nations.

This report is made possible through generous support from the American Clean Power Association, the Consumer Technology Association, the American Chemistry Council, the Cobalt Institute, and Autos Drive America.

Meredith Broadbent
Senior Adviser (Non-resident), Scholl Chair in International Business

Elias Shammas

Research Intern, Scholl Chair in International Business