Government Open Source Policies

National Policies

Government Branch or Agency Action DATE Status Details and Sources
Argentina Legislative Mandatory Apr. 2001 Failed Article 2 of the Bill 5613-D-00, known as the Bill of Free Software V5, stated: "The Executive Power, the Legislative Power, decentralized organizations and companies where the National State is a majority stockholder, will use for their systems and IT equipment only free programs (software)." After being reviewed by several committees, the bill expired in March 2002.1
Argentina National Information Technology Office National Information Office Advisory Mar. 2004 Approved The two institutions, which coordinate IT policy and implementation, announced that they promote Linux in all applications in public administration. The rationale for this decision is lower costs, creating local employment, and security.2
Argentina Legislative Mandatory Mar. 2002 Failed The Bill of Free Software V5, mandating OSS in all federal government agencies and companies in which the state is the majority stockholder, was reintroduced as Bill 904-D-02 in March 2002, the same month that the previous bill (5613-D-00) expired. In March 2004, it expired before passage. 3
Argentina Legislative Mandatory June 2004 Failed After Bill 904-D-02 expired in March, Bill 1280-D-04 was introduced in June 2004. It was the third attempt to pass the Bill of Free Software V5, but it also expired before passage 4
Argentina Legislative Mandatory 2008 Proposed A new bill would make the use of open source software throughout all government institutions and offices mandatory. Currently, it is provided only per the request of officials.5
Argentina Ministry of Labor RD Oct. 2008 Approved Argentina's Ministry of Labor approved EnterTECH, a public-private collaborative program that trains citizens in open technologies.6
Australia Tax Office Advisory Feb. 2004 Approved The Australian Tax Office will consider OSS alongside proprietary solutions.7
Australia National Office for the Information Economy Advisory Aug. 2004 Proposed The Government will continue to encourage the use of open source software solutions by developing a range of tools to help Government agencies make informed decisions to suit their IT needs. Open source software was identified in the Government's 2002 "Better services, Better Government" e-government strategy as providing opportunities for innovation, sharing of information technology, and potentially new market opportunities for small Australian businesses.8
Australia Legislative Preference Sept. 2003 Proposed Proposed amendment requiring Public Service Agencies prefer OSS "wherever practicable."9
Australia Information Management Office RD Apr. 2005 Approved A document outlines OSS options for government agencies. It does not promote OSS; procurement decisions should be made on the standard criteria of fitness for purpose and value for money.10
Austria Ministry of Education Advisory Apr. 2003 Proposed "The Austrian Ministry of Education recommended the adoption of two open source learning platforms and learning management systems in education."11
Austria Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (BMUKK) Advisory June 2009 Approved 'With support from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (BMUKK), the third edition of a special version of a GNU/Linux distribution for schools was published. The ministry recommends in a letter to all Austrian school headmasters that the aim is to promote the installation of open source software onto Austria's school computers as part of the EU Action Plan i2010. 12
Bahrain Ministry of Social Development Preferred 2006 Approved Bahrain's Ministry of Social Development (MOSD) is to become the first ministry in the Kingdom and in the Middle East to base its entire IT infrastructure on open source technology. Reasons for migration include lower cost, simplified IT management, the ability for modular scalability, and improved security and space efficiency.13
Belgium Legislative Mandatory Apr. 2003 Failed "The Assembly of the French-speaking Community of Brussels (COCOF) postponed a vote on an open source software decree approved by the budget committee of the COCOF."14 The Supreme Administrative Court ruled that only the Belgian Federal Parliament, not COCOF, could propose such a law mandating the use of open source.15
Belgium Council of Ministers Preference June 2004 Approved Federally commissioned software must be delivered with the source code; federal authorities should try to avoid proprietary software, but should make final decisions based on total cost of ownership.16
Belgium Parliamentary Committee RD Mar. 2003 Approved "A Parliamentary committee on the use of ICT in the Federal Parliament released a report highlighting the importance of the use of open standards."17
Belgium Legislative Advisory June 2004 Proposed On June 10, 2004, the Belgian Government published a white paper on the use of open standards by federal public bodies.18
Belgium and Netherlands NA Preference Apr. 2009 Approved The Dutch Foreign Trade Minister, Frank Heemsherk said that "the Belgian and the Dutch administrations have agreed to coordinate their policies on open standards and open source...and "will promote open standards and open source internationally.19
Benin Government Advisory Aug. 2005 Approved The Government of Benin has identified the development of FOSS as a strategy in its ICT plan and sees the promotion of FOSS as beneficial for software availability in the country. Civil society is encouraged to support the adoption process. The plan also calls for the use of open standards. A FOSS laboratory project called LABTIC is in process of being established, supported by the Agence de la Francophonie.20
Brazil Executive / National Institute of IT Advisory Nov. 2003 Approved The gov't initiative urges ministries and other agencies to use OSS, as well as evaluate how IT could benefit from open-software.21
Brazil Executive Mandatory Jan. / June 2005 Proposed The government of Brazil says it will switch 300,000 government computers from Microsoft's Windows operating system to open source software like Linux.22 "President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva is studying a draft decree which, if approved, would make [OSS] compulsory for federal departments."23
Brazil Legislative Mandatory Oct. 2003 Proposed The bill PL-2152/2003 mandates that all software used within the federal administration and public entities be OSS. The bill is to be reviewed with four other past proposals, three of which had been previously voided.24
Brazil Executive Preference May 2005 Approved Brazil launched PC Conectado, an attempt to sell 1 million low-cost computers. Proprietary software was excluded from the project; "We chose free software…because we believe it is a policy to spur national industry."25
Brazil Ministries / Executive Preference Aug. 2004 Approved Twenty percent of all computers used by the Brazilian ministries are running Linux and other open source software. In a few months this number should grow to 100 percent. Through its Digital Inclusion Program, Brazil wishes to democratize the use of computers.26
Brazil Federal Gov't RD Aug. 2004 Approved The government signed a cooperative agreement with an OSS company to create a Technology and Knowledge Dissemination Center (CDTC) to promote open standards-based solutions through training and support.27
Brazil Ministry of Science and Technology RD Oct. 2003 Proposed The Ministry has started the first Free Software Workshop, which recommends the use of OSS in the Federal Government.28
Brazil Ministry of Culture RD June 2006 Approved Brazil's Ministry of Culture supports local cultural initiatives, called Culture Points, through funding of up to BRL 185,000 (USD 88,500). Some of these resources are used to train citizens in the production and exchange of digital multimedia using FOSS. As of June 2006, 485 Culture Points had been set up by the program, and another 80 were awaiting approval.29
Brazil and South Korea Interagency RD Nov. 2004 Approved Brazil's National Institute of Technology of the Information (ITI) and the Korean IT Industry Promotion Agency (KIPA) signed an agreement to exchange OSS experiences.30
Bolivia Legislative Preference Aug. 2007 Proposed A bill entitled Free Software and Open Standards was proposed by the National Deputy Edgar Sanchez Aguirre to the federal legislature in August of 2007. Since September 2008, it has been taken up for evaluation by various committees of the House and other government entities. The bill is ambiguous in whether it is a mandate for migration to OSS or merely a preferential policy because of incongruent language in Articles 1 and 2. It cites security, transparency, advancing the local software industry, and promoting alternatives to transnational monopolies as the rationale behind the bill.31
Bulgaria Legislative Mandatory Mar. 2003 Proposed "A draft bill mandating the use of open source software, open standards, and open file formats by all state institutions and agencies, state-owned enterprises, higher schools, medical establishments, non-profit entities, state-funded entities, the Bulgarian consular, and diplomatic missions abroad. The bill allows for the use of non open source software solutions when existing OSS solutions do not meet the public administration's specific needs."32
Bulgaria UNDP RD June 2004 Approved The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Internet Society of Bulgaria (ISOC-Bulgaria) have launched a project to help municipal governments in Southeastern Europe with FOSS.33
Bulgaria Executive RD Mar. 2008 Approved The Bulgarian State Administration is conducting a series of reviews to discuss the viability of open source software in Bulgarian governmental institutions after a pilot program was run in November 2007.
Cambodia Executive Preference Feb. 2005 Approved Cambodia has issued an Open Source Master Plan and it is expected to come out with an Open Source Action Plan very soon. The Open Source Master Plan lays out a four-year OSS adoption plan for government systems and for development and promotion of OSS and Khmer language functionality.34
Cambodia National Information Communications Technology Development Authority - NiDA Preference 2002 Approved Policy 3.15: Government will promote Open Source system(s) in ICT to cut costs in a long term but also to broaden the skills and capacities of ICT professionals.35
Cambodia National Information Communications Technology Development Authority - NiDA Preference Sept. 2001 Approved "All laws, regulations and policies in the IT sector will reflect the following guiding spirit and philosophy: to uphold the interests of the consumers and general public, to guarantee security of information, while facilitating the broadest possible access to public information to respect individual rights, and to avoid dependency on proprietary systems, instead promoting open systems and interoperability." This is done to avoid dependency of proprietary systems, help reduce poverty, and efficiently develop human resources. 36
Canada CIO Branch Advisory Sept. 2003 Approved Canada does not distinguish on the basis of software development models.37
Chile Legislative Mandatory Jan. 2004 Proposed Bill being prepared that would mandate the use of OSS in all branches and levels of government, as well as State majority-owned companies. Goal of submission is March 2004.38
Chile Legislative Advisory June 2007 Approved The Chamber of Deputies signed a resolution asking the President to implement FLOSS in federal government agencies.39
Chile Legislative Advisory Aug. 2007 Approved House of Representatives passed a legislative statement requesting that President Bachelet apply a policy to tech-neutrality to IT acquisitions by the state.40
China Beijing Science and Technology Commission Advisory Aug. 2002 Approved "Beijing Science and Technology Commission has endorsed Linux as China's most important chance to improve its software industry… the commission would urge Chinese government bodies to consider using Linux with new computer systems, and also encourage private and university software designers to develop Linux and other open source software programs."41
China Ministry of Information Industry Advisory Sept. 2002 Approved "China's Ministry of Information Industry has established an Open Source Alliance to support Linux systems."42
China Ministry of Information Industry Advisory Mar. 2001 Proposed "Ministry of Information Industry (MII) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) would work together to encourage the development of the nation's software industry... According to Ministry officials, the government would fund further development of Red Flag Linux..."43
China Ministry of Information Industry RD Aug. 2004 Approved MII established the Open Source Software Promotion Alliance to encourage the development of China's OSS industry. It is composed of enterprises, non-profit organizations, representatives from NGOs, and individuals under the guidance of the Chinese government.44
China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand Turn to endnote to see list of government agencies and ministries, 1 RD June 2009 Approved China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand formed the Asian Open Source Software (AOSSC) to advance the adoption and development of open source software among Asian countries. 45
Colombia Legislative Advisory Dec. 2007 Proposed Proposed Bill 021 specifically states a policy of technological neutrality in software procurement by government entities. The bill encourages exploration into all types of software and technology; however, certain language which calls for the promotion of national tech and software industries and mandates for universities to educate students in different types of software may suggest a proclivity for OSS.46
Costa Rica Executive Preference Feb. 2002 Approved An executive order stating that public institutions can use OSS when it is possible and useful.47
Costa Rica Legislative Preference Sept. 2003 Proposed Member of political party (PLN) introduced a law on OSS emphasizing its technological independence, local development, costs of ownership but overall, security - one of governments' main concerns.48
Costa Rica Legislative Preference Nov. 2006 Failed "In November 2006, the Permanent Committee on Government and Administration ("PCGA") of the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica voted down an OSS preference bill that would have obligated all government institutions to use OSS in their information and data management systems."49
Croatia Central State Administrative Office Preference July 2006 Approved The Croatian government adopted an open source software policy and issued the following guidelines for developing and using open source software in the government institutions: Government institutions will choose and/or develop open source solutions as much as possible, instead of using closed source alternatives. The government will support development of closed source solutions that use open standards for protocols and file formats, and which are developed in Croatia. The government will support the use of open source programs and open standards outside of its institutions. The government will support the use of open source solutions in educational institutions; both closed and open source solutions will be equally presented to students.50
Cuba Executive Preference Feb. 2007 Approved The Cuban government is migrating thousands of its computers to Linux to counter Microsoft and the U.S.51
Cuba and Russia NA RD Aug. 2007 Approved Russia and Cuba have agreed to cooperate in information technology. They will collaborate in the development FOSS to decrease dependence on proprietary software.52
Czech Republic Ministry of Informatics Advisory Nov. 2005 Approved Ministry is supporting the Czech Open Source Software Alliance to provide consultation on OSS projects and assist with representation in the EU's IDABC with regard to OSS.53
Denmark Executive Advisory June 2003 Approved The government adopted a "Software Strategy" emphasizing value for money, competition, freedom of choice, and interoperability. The policy expresses no preference for open source, but several open source projects have been initiated under the policy."54
Denmark Ministry of Science and Technology, and Innovation Advisory Oct. 2002 Approved Analysis and recommendations drawn up by a working group under the Danish Board of Technology recommended that OSS compete on same level as proprietary software, and for OSS pilot projects.55
Denmark Legislative Advisory Nov. 2002 Failed "Socialist members of the Danish Parliament introduced a motion for a resolution calling for an offensive competitive strategy utilizing open source software and open standards. The motion did not gain the necessary support within Parliament and reportedly will not be re-introduced for a second hearing."56
Denmark Board of Technology RD Oct. 2002 Approved "The Danish Board of Technology released a report stating that the public administration would save 500 million Euros over four years by using open source software. The report also concluded that… open source solutions cannot be dictated as a general principle."57
Denmark Legislative Mandatory July 2007 Approved During a one-year pilot program, government agencies are required to carry Open Document Format (ODF) and Microsoft's Open XML format on all computers. The Danish Parliament and a third party will evaluate the test program in 2009.58
Djibouti Government RD 2003 Approved The National Information and Telecommunications Plan of Djibouti was approved in 2003. One of the identified strategies was to do research on and test FOSS, in particular Linux, through a new FOSS laboratory. A Linux team was suggested to help install Linux and Linux networks in schools in Djibouti.59
Ecuador Legislative Mandatory May 2008 Approved Executive Decree 1014 made FLOSS mandatory for public administration.60
EU DG XIII, Info Society Advisory 2003-2004 Approved 2003-2004 Workplan encourages the use ofOS where appropriate for the specific program of "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area."61
EU Directorate Info Society Advisory June 2002 Approved eEurope 2005 Action Plan recommends open source for a EU "interoperability framework."62
EU EU Commission Advisory Sept. 2003 Approved A Communication from the Commission on the role of eGovernment states that the "exchange of experience in the use of open standards and open source amongst public administrations should be promoted in terms of efficiency, productivity, and quality of their services."63
EU EU Telecomm Ministry Advisory Dec. 2001 Approved "A resolution on network and information security approved by the Council of EU Telecommunications Ministers encouraged the EU Member States to initiate effective and interoperable security solutions based on recognised standards including open source software in their e-government and e-procurement activities."64
EU Ministerial Resolution on E-Government Advisory Nov. 2001 Approved "The Ministers of Public Service and Administration of the EU Member States, the EFTA Member States, and the accession countries included open source language in a declaration underlining the importance of e-government to the development of Europe's Information Society."65
EU Information Society Technologies Advisory Group Advisory Sept. 2002 Approved "ISTAG published a report on 'Software Technologies, Embedded Systems, and Distributed Systems' calling for the use of open source licensing for software generated in the Information Society Technologies (IST) program. Under the IST program, the EU Commission launched the 'Three Roses Initiative' to provide funding for the use of open source software in e-government services and e-business solutions in EU Member States."66
EU Information Society Technologies Advisory Group Advisory 2004 Approved "Open, secure, interoperable Egovernment platforms, applications and multi-modal services… should…deploy as much as possible open source software solutions for all aspects of inter- and intragovernment operations including electronic democracy systems, interaction with citizens and businesses, governmental process re-engineering and knowledge management."67
EU EU Parliament Advisory Sept. 2001 Approved "Adopted a resolution proposed by the committee on the Echelon Interception System. The resolution urged the Commission and Member States to promote European encryption software and support projects aimed at developing open source encryption software."68
EU Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services Programme Advisory Jan. 2004 Approved The Open Source Observatory aims to provide "support for initiatives that encourage uptake of OSS and spread good practice in its use."69
EU Green Party Preference Jan. 2004 Proposed Formulated a Draft Normal Resolution for governments to "promote the introduction and use of free and open source software within their governmental bodies and public administrations" and will submit a proposal for a European Directive on Open standards and Interoperability.70
EU Enterprise D-G Directorate RD Aug. 2003 Approved Call for Tender "to establish a service in support of public administrations using open source software with the intention of encouraging the spread of good practice."71
EU Research Institutions RD Dec. 2004 / May 2005 Approved EU provided 2.2 million euros to study OSS in December 200472 and an additional 660,000 euros in May 2005.73
EU EU Commission RD Sept. 2002 Approved Under the Information Society Technologies program, the EU Commission launched the "Three Roses Initiative" to provide funding for the use of open source software in e-government services and e-business solutions in EU Member States.74
EU EU Commission IDA RD Nov. 2003 Approved The IDA Open Source Migration Guidelines - "provide practical and detailed recommendations on how to migrate to Open Source Software (OSS)-based office applications, calendaring, e-mail and other standard applications."75
EU Information Society DG RD May 2003 Approved There are roughly 20 projects supporting and developing OSS. They contribute to the development of essential components of a free software infrastructure, and associated development tools or applications. See source for a list of projects from the 5th Framework Programme.76
Finland Ministry of Finance Advisory Oct. 2003 Approved A ministry working paper calls for government agencies to consider OSS alternatives.77
Finland Legislative Advisory June 2002 Failed A group of Finnish MPs signed a non-binding Bill "requiring national and local agencies to migrate their IT systems to the Linux operating system." The bill has expired and was not renewed in 2003.78
Finland Joint Venture RD Sept. 2003 Approved The Applied Linux Institute run by the Dept. of Communications and the Institution of Adult Education of Vantaa at the University of Helsinki, and the Dept. of Schooling and Education of the City of Vantaa, (all public institutions), is conducting research and development on OS applications.79
Finland JUHTA (Advisory Committee on Information Management in Public Admin. - part of the Ministry of the Interior) Preference Feb. 2009 Approved JUHTA, a committee in the Ministry of the Interior in charge of cooperation in information management between the State and municipalities, wants the country's public administrations to increase their use of open source and open standards and has published a policy document to help public bodies with procurement and deployment.80
France Ministerial Preference 2003 Approved Ministries of Defense, Culture, and Economy use FOSS operating systems.81
France Ministry of Culture and Communication Preference 2003 Proposed Ministry called for full migration to FOSS by 2005. Also two parliamentary bills submitted (1999 and 2000) supporting FOSS, died.82
France Ministry of Defense RD Sept. 2004 Approved Ministry has formed a consortium to develop a highly secure Linux-based operating system.83
France Executive RD Aug. 2003 Approved The government has launched an open-source content management system to standardize government websites.84
France Commissariat General du Plan RD Oct. 2002 Approved "A working group composed of experts from companies and administrative agencies issued a report analyzing the French software industry and examining how the government can best support the industry. The report recommended that public agencies promote the development of free software platforms and open standards."85
France Ministerial RD Nov. 2001 Approved Agency for the Development of the Electronic Administration (ADEA), formerly the Agency for Technologies of Information and Communication in Administration (ATICA), is "in charge of selecting open standards to be enforced all over public administrations in order to guarantee full interoperability."86
France Agency for the Development of the Electronic Administration RD Feb. 2004 Approved Agency for the Development of the Electronic Administration (ADEA) announced plans to migrate 5-15% of its desktop software to OSS by 2007 as part of Project ADELE, a plan to computerize much of the country's administration by 2007.87 A 2005 update on the implementation of the ADELE e-government programme noted that it was ahead of schedule, and the latest official user survey shows that use of - and satisfaction with - online public services is increasing.88
France Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry RD Dec. 2006 Approved The French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry's center of excellence mission will federate research in OSS and facilitate access to financing.89
France Economic Commission Advisory Jan. 2008 Proposed "An economic commission set up by President Sarkozy, recommended that France should increase its use of open source software and consider tax benefits to stimulate open source development.90
France Ministry of Defense Preference Apr. 2007 Approved "The French ministry of Defense will give preference to Open Source software and open standards for its IT projects."91
France Ministry of Education Advisory Apr. 2008 Approved The French Ministry of Education is increasing the number of open source software licenses to France's educational institutions to offer more choices and make users less dependent on software vendors."92
France, Gendarmerie Deputy director of the Gendarmerie's IT Department Mandatory Jan. 2008 Approved The Gendarmerie, part of French police force, will migrate all of its 70,000 desktops from proprietary software to Open Source.93
Germany Bundestag Advisory June 2002 Approved "Adopted a resolution on 'Creating an Information Society for All.' The resolution called for the increased use of open source software in the federal administration and stated that 'open source is an important instrument that can provide for secure and stable IT solutions.' The resolution was proposed by the Social Democratic Party, the main party in the governing coalition."94
Germany The Ministry of Economy Advisory May 2003 Approved "The Ministry of Economy (Federal) announced a decision to stop the systematic promotion of open source software projects. The Ministry adopted a policy to strengthen the competition between free and proprietary software in general. The Ministry will support the new policy objective through neutral public procurement tenders. The Ministry announced that an independent, non-governmental body of experts will formulate the criteria for public procurement tenders."95
Germany Social Democrats / Green Party Coalition Advisory Sept. 2002 Proposed "After the September elections, the Social Democrats and the Green Party formed a new federal coalition government and agreed on a work program. The new program stated that 'the law must protect the position of small companies in the software field' and that 'open source products shall not be discriminated'."96
Germany Ministry of the Interior Preference June 2002 Approved Government contracts with Open Source providers for government agencies wishing to make OSS procurements.97
Germany Ministry of the Interior - KBSt Preference July 2003 Approved Published a software Migration Guide which included replacement/migration/integration guidelines for Open Source Software.98
Germany Ministerial RD July 2003 Proposed Federal Ministry of the Interior published migration to OSS manual.99
Germany Federal Agency for Information Technology (BIT) Preference June 2009 Approved Germany's federal Agency for Information Technology (BIT) now "officially recommends" open source collaboration suite Kolab, to all public administrations.100
Ghana Legislative Advisory Apr. 2007 Proposed "The government of Ghana is serious about free and open source software. Ghanaian communications minister Mike Oquaye said that the government had already 'tasked the Ghana-India Kofi Annan Centre of Excellence in ICT to spearhead the national consultation process on open source policy and to provide an initial draft document for our consideration'."101
Hong Kong Commerce, Industry, and Technology Bureau Advisory Mar. 2003 Approved The Commerce, Industry, and Technology Bureau published a paper entitled "2004 Digital 21 Strategy," which stated the government will promote OSS within the government when viable, and will encourage its use in the private sector with funding.102
Hong Kong Secretary for Commerce, Industry, and Technology Advisory Nov. 2002 Approved The Information Technology Services Department (ITSD) issued a circular to all departments, "urging them to consider different types of software including open source in procurement and, based on the principle of cost effectiveness, select among the products which meet the basic functional requirements and offer the best value for money."103
Iceland Ministry of Justice Preference 2003 Approved Open source office suite used in all police stations (700 PCs).104
India N/A Advisory May 2005 Approved Gov't is distributing millions of free CDs with Tamil and Hindi language OSS.105
India Executive Advisory May 2003 / July 2004 Proposed President has made public comments supporting OSS.106
India Department of Information Technology Preference 2003 Proposed The Department is supporting the development of a Hindi Linux distribution, Indix.107
India Department of Information Technology RD Sept. 2004 Approved The National Informatics Center has created a web site to share the government's experience in using OSS.108
India Ministry of Communications Information Preference June 2008 Proposed "Open source software is preferable when deciding between two standards"109
Indonesia Education Ministry Preference Mar. 2003 Approved U.S. company donated $57 million worth of its open source office suite to the Education Ministry.110
Indonesia Ministry of Research and Technology Preference Oct. 2006 Proposed The Indonesian Government's mission of going open source is nearly accomplished. The Government has already launched IGOS Nusantara 2006 Release 3 for the country's users. IGOS (Indonesia, go open source!) is a national effort to strengthen the national information technology system as well as to exploit the global information technology development through utilization and exploitation of Open Source Software (OSS).111
Indonesia Ministry of Research and Technology RD Nov. 2008 Approved Indonesia's State-Ministry of Research and Technology founded the Center for Open Source Technology Awakening (COSTA) to foster open source development in Indonesia. The Indonesian government supports open source as a means to break the cycle of following "big, rich nations in technology usage."112
Ireland N/A RD Dec. 2003 Approved Funded development of a "Knowledge Asset Development System" for Ireland, Europe, and the Middle East.113
Israel Ministry of Finance Advisory Jan. 2004 Proposed "The ministry plans to distribute thousands of Open Office programs on CD-ROM at public computer centers and eventually community centers across the country," and is "about to propose that government ministries use the free Linux open operating system as well."114 "Government agencies will continue to use proprietary products they already have but won't upgrade them, and the government is promoting the development and use of open-source alternatives."115
Israel Department of Commerce Preference Dec. 2003 Approved With its Microsoft contract running out, the Department announced plans to switch most desktops to Open Source Software. Other agencies are showing an interest as well.116
Israel Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor RD Apr. 2005 Approved The Ministry has paired with IBM to encourage the use and development of OSS. As part of the plan, the Ministry offers grants of up to $100,000 for Israeli start-ups.117
Israel Legislative Mandatory 2003 Proposed The proposal--actually an amendment to the Mandatory Tenders Law--would require government agencies and institutions to only purchase software based on open-source code.118
Italy National Agency for ICT in Public Administration Advisory Oct. 2004 Approved The Plan for Information Society for 2005-2007 calls for extensive use of open source applications where possible.119
Italy Ministry for Innovation Advisory June 2002 Approved "The Minister for Innovation presented a set of Government Guidelines for 2002-2005 to promote technological development. The document called for the adoption of open source software by public administrations…The guidelines also recommended that the government launch a national research program on open source…"120
Italy Council of Ministers Advisory 2001 Approved "The Council of Ministers endorsed a recommendation by the Senate that urged the administration 'to draft regulations for the examination of open source projects and for the progressive adoption of non-proprietary operating systems and applications by public administrations. Neither the recommendation nor the endorsement was binding on the Berlusconi government that came to power in June 2001."121
Italy Legislative Mandatory 2003 Proposed Bill mandates preference for FOSS in government agencies. Other bills to encourage OSS are pending as well.122
Italy Ministry for Innovation Preference Feb. 2004 Approved A directive from the ministry stating that in the acquisition of software, the Public Administration must consider OSS and judge software according to transferability, interoperability, dependency on supplier, and the availability of the source code for inspection.123
Italy Senate Preference July 2002 Proposed A Senate Committee for Education and Culture held hearings about an OSS amendment to reform the national education system to increase the use of OSS.124
Italy N/A RD Jan. 2006 Approved "The Italian Code of Digital Administration, which became effective on January 1, 2006, requires that any software developed by one PA must be made available at no cost, with complete source code and documentation, to any other PA that can adapt it to its own needs."125
Italy Legislative Preference Jan. 2007 Approved "The Italian budget law encourages public administrations to use Open source software. The government in December introduced a provision (art.1, c. 897) that will favor projects using this type of software. During the coming three years, a total of 30 million euro is available for projects that stimulate the information society. Those using or developing free software will be given priority."126
Italy Ministry of Public Administration and Innovation RD June 2009 Approved "The Italian government wants to increase the use of open source in schools. The Italian Ministry of Public Administration and Innovation, Renato Brunetta earlier this week announced two pilot projects in school in Rome."127
Japan Information Technology Promotion Agency RD April 2008 Approved "The Information Technology Promotion Agency, a Japanese government research institute, is working with the Linux Foundation to accelerate Japan's adoption of GNU/Linux and other Open Source applications. Japan expects increased awareness on Open Source's legal usefulness, andwant to strengthen its position in the area of standardisation."128
Japan Central Government RD May 2007 Approved "The central government of Japan says to make Linux and open source a priority for all IT procurements, starting this July. The central government of Japan says it plans to spend around $1.25 trillion yen, or $10.4 billion, on IT over the next year. The government has said explicitly it wants to decrease its reliance on Microsoft as a server operating systemplatform." 129
Jordan Ministry of Information and Communications Technology Advisory 2008 Approved Jordan's Ministry of Information and Communications Technology is officially neutral toward Open Source.130
Laos STEA Advisory 2007 Approved Lao's national ICT policy states that the government will promote the integration and teaching of free and open source software in its computer science/engineering curricula.131
Macedonia Ministry of Education Mandatory Aug. 2007 Approved The Macedonian government will install the open source Ubuntu distribution of GNU/Linux on all 180,000 of its school computer workstations.
Malaysia Ministerial Preference Aug. 2004 Approved All Government procurements now have a strong preference for OSS under the Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Masterplan.132
Malaysia Executive/ Ministerial Preference Oct. 2003 Proposed Government created a $36 million fund for start-ups developing OSS. Also, government reportedly developing a national OS based on Linux.133
Malaysia Executive/ Ministerial Preference Aug. 2002 / Aug. 2003 Failed Origionally, the Malay government "decided to begin OSS implementation in agencies like the Treasury, while other ministries have begun implementing OSS on their servers." The government is also conducted some pilot studies on how to switch over to OSS.134 However, in 2006, the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation reversed this position, announcing an official policy of tech-neutrality.
Malaysia Ministerial RD Sept. 2003 Approved The government set up an OSS Competency Center.135
Malaysia Legislative Advisory July 2007 Approved The Government of Malaysia has decided to encourage the use of Open Source Software (OSS) in the Malaysian Public Sector. The Malaysian Administration Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) of the Prime Minister Department is given the responsibility to implement this OSS Initiative.136
Malaysia Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Nov. 21 2006 Approved The Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation announced that the Malaysian Government is adopting a neutral technology platform policy that does not favor either open source software (OSS) or proprietary software, and that government procurement policies will now be based on merit and not on platform choice. This represents a reversal of the "Malaysian Open Source Software Master Plan," which established a preference for OSS and sought to expand its use in the public sectors.137
Mexico Legislative Mandatory 2001 Failed Legislation would have mandated the use of OSS on federal government computers.138
Mexico Legislative Advisory June 2009 Proposed Legislation proposed in June urges the President "to consider, where deemed feasible, the preferential use of free software licenses in all branches of the Federal Executive bodies" and para-state organizations.139
Mexico Legislative RD July 2009 Proposed An amendment added in July to the above legislation calls on the President begin studies in all federal agencies to assess the feasibility of implementing a preferential poli cy for OSS.140
Netherlands Legislative Preference Feb. 2003 Approved "In 2003 the Dutch parliament adopted a plan that would see open standards used exclusively from 2006 and called for the government to promote open source software in the public sector. Adoption of open standards was not approved until 2007."141
Netherlands Ministers of the Interior and of Economy Preference Feb. 2003 Approved Established an action plan for the promotion of Open Standards and OSS in the public administration (the plan looks to have come out of the Program mentioned above).142 "The OSOSS (open source as a part of the software strategy) program was created to help stimulate the use of open standards and provide information on open source software"143
Netherlands Ministries of Interior and Economic Affairs RD Jan. 2007 Approved In the beginning of 2003, the Dutch government started a program called Open Standards and Open Source Software (OSSOS) to stimulate Dutch government agencies to use open standards in their software and to inform them about open source software. "Last month, 10 major Dutch cities signed a Manifesto of the Open Cities, signaling that the OSOSS program is working."144
Netherlands Legislature Mandatory Dec. 2007 Approved Bill calls for the use of open source software in all governmental ministries by 2009. All institutions that still insist on the use of proprietary software must provide reasons for maintaining it until a later date.
Netherlands Ministry of Interior RD July 2009 Approved "The Dutch police will start investigating how to increase its use of open standards and open source software." The study was initiated to follow the cabinet's policy on open standards and prevent discrimination against certain operating systems.145
Norway Norwegian Board of Technology Advisory Dec. 2004 Approved An independent government advisory board recommended the public stimulation of OSS development through pilot programs.146
Norway Ministry of Modernization Mandatory May 2007 Proposed Norway is the latest European country to move closer to mandatory government use of ODF (and PDF). Norway now joins Belgium, Finland, and France (among other nations) in moving toward a final decision to require such use.147
Norway Ministry of Labor and Gov't Admin Preference July 2002 Approved Norway cancelled a contract with proprietary vender to allow for more competition from Open Source and other software.148
Norway Directorate on Public Management RD Aug. 2001 Approved Statskonsult, a state-owned company, carried out a report recommending OSS in the public sector and in education.149
Norway Ministry of Government Administration and Reform Preference Nov. 2008 Approved The Ministry of Government Administration and Reform wants the country's public administrations to make more use of open source applications in order to reduce the dependency on proprietary software.150
OECD WPISP Advisory Oct. 2002 Approved "The OECD Working Party on Information Society and Privacy (WPISP) prepared a draft implementation plan of the guidelines for the security of information systems and networks. The draft recommends the utilization of open source technology."151
Pakistan IT Ministry RD Apr. 2004 Approved The Ministry has "decided to launch an Rs37 million project to train 4,000 government officials from different ministries and departments" on the use of open source.152
Pakistan Ministry of Science Technology RD 2003 Approved The government established a Task Force for Linux to set up "future directions" for Pakistani IT.153
Pakistan Ministry of Science and Technology Preference 2000 Approved Pakistan's national IT policy states that "The government will encourage the use of open source operating systems."154
Pakistan Ministry of Information Technology RD 2003 Approved In 2003 the Pakistan Software Export Board under the Ministry of Technology created the Open Source Resource Center (OSRC) to raise public awareness about open source solutions, decrease dependency on proprietary software, address issues regarding Intellectual Property Rights, and decrease software costs.
Paraguay National Science and Technology Council RD May 2005 Approved Paraguay's government is studying whether to implement open source in all its entities.155
Peru Legislative Mandatory 2002 Failed Four similar bills mandating use of OSS in all "government agencies and state-majority-owned companies;" proposed in December 2001, March 2002, April 2002, and May 2002 respectively. Bills heard by committee, which removed all four bills from consideration.156
Peru Legislative Mandatory 2003 Failed Bill requiring all "Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, regional and local state entities, and national educational centres" to use OSS. A similar bill was introduced in September 2003 by a Vice-President of the Congress. Soft preference bill introduced in June 2003.157
Peru Legislative Advisory Oct. 2005 Approved Law 28615 which mandated a neutral technology procurement policy in the central government represented a dramatic policy reversal by Peru, rejecting its prior legislative attempts to establish an explicit preference for FLOSS.158
Philippines Department of Science and Technology Preference 2001 Approved The Department's Advanced Science and Technology Institute is promoting and providing OSS (Bayanihan Linux) in government and schools.159
Philippines National Computer Centre RD Feb. 2003 Proposed "The Director-General of NCC temporarily placed on hold a plan to promote open source software use and commissioned the NCC's Standards Division to produce a white paper on open source software. The Director-General reportedly plans to use the white paper to draft an official policy on open source software and Linux."160
Philippines Legislative Mandatory Feb. 2008 Proposed "In Phillipines House Bill #1716, the Representative Teodoro Casiño proposed a mandatory adoption of Free Open Source Software (FOSS), open standards, and open formats in all government agencies. If that bill is passed, the Republic of Philippines will be the second country in the world with this form of legislation."161
Philippines Commission on Information and Communications Technology Advisory Feb. 2009 Approved "The Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT), the government's ICT policy-making body, has decided to keep an open choice strategy, letting government agencies have the final say on which technology they want to use."162
Poland Multiple Agencies Advisory July 2005 Proposed In 2003, Government established advisory body comprised of six software experts that intends to promote the use of OSS in education and in public administration. In 2004, the Ministry of Science and Information Society Technologies drafted the "National Open Source Development Strategy."163
Poland Polish Ministry of National Education Advisory Aug. 2008 Approved The Polish Ministry of National Education is advising schools and universities to use Open Source software. The recommendation comes at the end of a volunteer campaign to help schools switch to Open Source.164
Poland Ministry of Interior and Administration Advisory Feb. 2009 Proposed The latest version of the Information Technology Development Act (ITDA) replaced language guaranteeing the "full openness of standards" with a provision declaring a policy of "technological neutrality."165
Portugal Council of Ministers Advisory Jan. 2002 Approved "The Council of Ministers adopted a non-binding resolution promoting use of open source software in the public administration…"166
Portugal Parliament Mandatory Oct. 2003 Failed Bill would have mandated OSS in public administrations. It was rejected on October 10, 2003.167
Portugal Ministry of Education Preference Mar. 2004 Approved Ministry entered into a 5-year deal with OSS company for secondary schools.168
Portugal Legislative Mandatory Oct. 2007 Failed A bill proposing that the Portuguese government move to an open-source infrastructure was amended to simply give government officials access to open source software. Any further governmental migration towards an open source will be reconsidered in 2008.
Portugal Education Ministry RD Feb. 2008 Approved The Portuguese Education Ministry launched a new website designed to promote open source usage: "Our policy of full disclosure of software gives priority to open access to software source code / open source, but also includes software for free distribution of educational interest to maximize the use of computers in the school environment."169
Russia Ministry of Communications Mandatory Aug. 2007 Approved The Russian government plans to reduce its dependence on foreign commercial software by installing domestically-developed GNU/Linux open source software on all of its schools' computers by the end of 2009.
Russia Ministry on Information Technology and Communications Advisory Apr. 2008 Approved The Russian Ministry on Information Technology and Communications recently published a roadmap for the government adoption of free software. Although not binding, it aims "to strengthen the local software development industry and increase involvement of Russian programmers in the development of software for government and municipal needs." Since April 2008, the government has held meetings with local and multinational open source companies and plans to open "competence centers," whose focus will be to transfer the best practices from other countries in the implementation of open source on the government level. 170 171
S. Korea IT Industry Promotion Agency Preference Feb. 2004 Approved About 1,000 information systems development projects for local autonomous governments would switch to OSS as part of a larger plan to move more systems to OSS.172
S. Korea Ministry of Information and Communication Preference Mar. 2005 Approved The Ministry will promote OSS use in government by offering a total of 3 billion Won to agencies switching from proprietary software.173
S. Korea Korean Government Preference Dec. 2002 Proposed "The Korean Government has actively supported the development and proliferation of Linux through the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and the Korean IT Industry Promotion Agency (KIPA). The KIPA Working Group for the Promotion of Open Source Software published a 'Research Paper on Open Source Software - Focusing on Legal Problems and Foreign Policies'."174
S. Korea Ministry of Information and Communication Preference 2003 Proposed The Ministry of Information and Communication announced a plan to foster the nation's OSS industry throughout 2003.175
S. Korea Ministry of Information and Communication Preference July 2006 Proposed The Ministry has announced its plan to replace proprietary software with OSS to promote competition.176
S. Korea Ministry of Education Preference Oct. 2006 Approved The government launched the National Education Information System (NEIS), built "almost entirely on an open source model" that uses Linux and Sun Microsystems' Solaris.177
Singapore Economic Development Board Preference 2003 Approved Offers tax breaks to companies that use GNU/Linux operating systems instead of proprietary ones to encourage development of the local software sector.178
Slovakia N/A Advisory Aug. 2006 Approved The Slovak OpenSource Initiative (SKOSI) was founded to create and support free and open source software (FOSS) and free multi-platform infrastructure solutions in the Slovak Republic, as well as to support FOSS integration into education and the government sectors.179
Slovenia Ministry of Information Society Advisory Oct. 2003 Approved OSS and proprietary options are given equal consideration in procurements, though the government plans to "contribute to propagating information and knowledge…of the use of software and solutions based on open source."180
South Africa Government Information Officers' Council Preference June 2003 Approved The Government Information Officers' Council (GITOC) has concluded that: "As OSS offers significant indirect advantages, opting for OSS will be preferable where the direct advantages and disadvantages of OSS and PS are equally standards will be a prerequisite for all software development, thus contributing to the ease with which OSS can be implemented and adapted; Government will encourage partnerships ... to foster the utilisation of OSS." Approved by Cabinet in June 2003.181
South Africa Department of Science and Technology RD Dec. 2003 Approved Department of Science and Technology is funding the Open Source Center to promote government and educational uses of OSS.182
South Africa Government IT Officer's Council RD Aug. 2006 Approved Council investigating use of FOSS in 2003 made recommendations promoting FOSS applications when proprietary ones offered no advantage. In 2005, the revised policy stated that the "South African Government will implement FOSS unless proprietary software is demonstrated to be significantly superior…Whenever FOSS is not implemented, then reasons must be provided in order to justify the implementation of proprietary software."183
South Africa Executive Preference Feb.2007 Approved The South African Cabinet today announced that it had approved a free and open source strategy and that government would migrate its current software to free and open source software…This strategy will, among other things, lower administration costs and enhance local IT skills.184
Spain Administración General del Estado Advisory June 2003 Approved The Superior Information Council, which is tasked by Spain's General Administration for the approval and diffusion of IT criteria and normalization, recommends adopting OSS when available and when it is satisfactory for the task.185
Spain Ministry of Public Administrations Mandatory May 2005 Failed Full migration to OSS in 1999 for the Ministry of Public Administrations. The migration seems to have been abandoned.186
Spain Legislative Mandatory   Proposed Bill would require all public administration websites, software, and documents to be Linux compatible.187
Spain Legislative Preference May 2002 Failed "The Parliament rejected a proposed bill that would have required all regional governments to prefer open source software and promote development of open source products."188
Spain Legislative Preference Aug. 2002 Proposed Bill would require regional governments to establish OSS preferences.189
Spain N/A RD Mar. 2005 Approved The government created the National Center for Open Source Software.190
Spain Development of the Information Society RD May 2006 Approved Government will provide 12 Million Euros for OSS research projects.191
Spain N/A RD May 2006 Approved "The National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation (2004-2007) includes a specific budget line for OSS projects, representing 5% of the total budget for RD for Information Society technologies."192
Spain Legislative Preference Jan. 2007 Approved Nearly unanimous resolution in the Parliament promotes the use of OSS in public administration.193
Spain Legislative Advisory Jan. 2007 Approved "An almost unanimous resolution of the Spanish parliament in mid December urges the government to promote free software. The resolution got 299 votes in favor."194
Sri Lanka ICT Agency Advisory Jan. 2004 Proposed ICT Agency Chair stated, "While the Government realizes that Open Source is not suitable for all situations, it supports and encourages its use where it provides a benefit. Sri Lankan companies too may benefit by adopting open source development methodologies when they make business sense."195
Sweden Agency for Public Management RD Aug. 2003 Approved The Swedish Agency for Public Management (Statskontoret) completed a study "to describe free and open source software and to offer suggestions for further work and measures." The report recommends that OSS "be judged on an even par with proprietary software in a procurement process."196
Sweden Association of Local Authorities and Regions RD Nov. 2005 Approved The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions is running "Programverket," a project to help the public sector adopt or convert to OSS. Programverket will also provide support and facilitate collaboration with OSS in the public sector.197
Switzerland IT Council Advisory Mar. 2004 Approved Four-year strategy allows central and local governments to consider OSS alongside proprietary software and sets up "an environment for successful OSS implementation."198
Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs Preference Oct. 2003 Approved Taiwan will spend US$3.4 million into promoting OSS development. The government "aims to have 30% of servers and 5% of personal computers operating on open-source software by 2007."199
Taiwan Commission of the Legislative Yuan Preference June 2002 Approved The Government wants to encourage RD and use of OSS. The initiative, which aimed to decrease licensing fees for the government's 1.23 million PCs, resulted in Microsoft price cuts for Taiwan.200
Taiwan Government Procurement Agency Mandatory June 2006 Approved All government PC's must be Linux compatible.201
Tanzania Executive Advisory Feb. 2003 Approved A National ICT Policy document recommends the use of OSS.202
Tanzania Executive Preference 2003 Approved Tanzania's national ICT policy, adopted in 2003, encourages the use of OSS.203
Thailand Ministerial Advisory June 2003 Approved Agreement between the ICT Ministry and the Ministry of Science and Technology to develop and promote OSS in private sector.204
Thailand ICT Ministry Advisory May / Nov. 2003 Approved Agreement with the Thai Software Industry (ATSI) to stimulate OSS development and to distribute one million Linux based computers by May 2004.205 By August 2003, the government had sold 300,000 PCs.206
Thailand National Electronic and Computer Technology Centre Advisory May 2005 Approved The NECTEC director is encouraging the use of OSS and said the Thai government has no plans to completely eliminate proprietary software, but would be happy with a 50 percent OSS penetration rate.207
Thailand Software Industry Promotion Agency Advisory Feb. 2005 Approved SIPA is driving Linux adoption in government agencies, schools, and universities.208
Thailand Information and Communications Ministry Advisory Dec. 2002 Proposed "The Information and Communications Ministry strongly endorsed open source software in connection with an announcement of 95 new ICT projects for 2003… the Ministry would encourage government agencies to increase the use of free software, including the Pladoa (Thai language open source software) operating system."209
Thailand Information and Communications Ministry Preference Feb. 2003 Proposed "The Information and Communications Ministry announced that the Ministry would support open source technology with funding and policy initiatives."210
Thailand National Electronic and Computer Technology Centre RD Sept. 2004 Approved In October 2001, "Government officials announced that agencies would begin backing initiatives aimed at using the Thai language OSS (Pladoa) in an effort to reduce costs, reduce software piracy, and increase the self-sufficiency of Thailand's economy. Some members of Parliament have also proposed incorporating open source specifications into government IT procurement. Thailand's [NECTEC] is actively involved in the development of OSS office suites and Linux based operating systems."211 In 2003, NECTEC developed a Linux distribution for schools and government desktops. In January 2004, as a partnership with the Lab School Project, NECTEC began developing Linux server distribution for 921 schools.212
Thailand Software Industry Promotion Agency (SIPA) RD Nov. 2008 Approved "Thailand's Software Industry Promotion Agency (SIPA) has developed Thailand's first open-source software-development roadmap to transform the country into a leading open-source development centre by2011. The agency has allocated a budget of about US$1.5 million a year to encourage open-source software development and achieve its roadmap goals."213
Tunisia Government Advisory Jul. 2001 Approved In July 2001, the Government of Tunisia defined a FOSS policy. The objectives included encouraging migration to FOSS, including FOSS in school curricula, providing incentives to FOSS company start-ups, and ensuring that public procurement policies are not biased against FOSS.214
Turkey Ministry of Defense Mandatory Aug. 2007 Approved Turkey's Military Recruitment Division installed Pardus Linux on 4,500 of its desktops and 500 of its servers. The use of Pardus Linux is part of a broader national digital archiving and analysis project.
UK OGC/ e-Government Unit Advisory Oct. 2004 Approved The updated version of Government policy on the use of Open Source Software within the UK government specifies software choices should be made on a money-for-value basis, giving no preference to OSS. The National Technical Authority for Information Assurance (CESG) will examine issues regarding OSS for use in government systems.215
UK OGC RD Sept. 2003 Approved November 2002 Case Study and September 2003 "Proof of Concept" Final Report state that OSS is a "viable and credible alternative" to proprietary software and recommend the public sector consider benefits of development and migration.216
UK OGC/ e-Government Unit RD Oct. 2003 / Oct. 2004 Approved Nine government agencies tested OSS to "measure the effectiveness and cost-benefits of IT systems based on OSS products."217 OCG concluded testing found that "open source software is a viable and credible alternative to proprietary software" for many applications, but there are still limitations hindering its use. It recommends a gradual introduction of OSS as applications improve.218
UK e-Envoy Office / Dept. of Industry and Trade RD Feb. 2003 Approved "The e-Envoy Office and the Department of Industry and Trade (DTI) adopted interim conclusions on government-funded RD software outputs…[that] state that if no exploitation route is specified for government-funded RD software outputs, the default position of the government should be 'to adopt an open source software license which complies with the OSI definition (which includes the GPL and Berkeley style licenses) or a UK-specific analogue of it' [and] 'all government-funded software should be accompanied by appropriate documentation which will assist the exploitation via the open source software license'."219
UK Office of the Deputy Prime Minister RD June 2005 Approved The government will sponsor research at the National Computing Centre in OS applications in the public sector.220
UK Chief Information Office Council Preference Mar. 2009 Approved The UK's Open Source policy is as follows: The Government will actively and fairly consider open source solutions alongside proprietary ones in making procurement decisions, Procurement decisions will be made on the basis on the best value for money solution to the business requirement, taking account of total lifetime cost of ownership of the solution, including exit and transition costs, after ensuring that solutions fulfill minimum and essential capability, security, scalability, transferability, support and manageability requirements. The Government will expect those putting forward IT solutions to develop where necessary a suitable mix of open source and proprietary products to ensure that the best possible overall solution can be considered. Where there is no significant overall cost difference between open and non-open source products, open source will be selected on the basis of its additional inherent flexibility221
Ukraine Legislative Preference Mar. 2003 Failed A member of Parliament introduced a new version of an open source software preference bill originally submitted in August 2002. The bill mandates the use of free software and free licenses in all government institutions at the state and local level and state-owned agencies when such software "exists in the market (or is freely accessible); and does not yield to 'closed' software and/or has advantages compared with the 'closed' software according to correlation of price and function." 222 A version of this legislation was still under consideration in June 2005.223 Both bills have been defeated.224
UN UNDP Advisory Apr. 2003 Approved "The UNDP actively promotes government open source software adoption. The Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP) of the UNDP launched the International Open Source Network to aid countries in sharing information on open source software. UNDP is implementing the DOT Force action items on software development by promoting the use and dissemination of open source software within developing countries."225
UN UNCTAD Advisory Nov. 2003 Approved Calls on poor countries to adopt OSS to bridge the digital divide by lowering costs, increasing security, stimulating local economies, and avoiding proprietary lock-in as reasons for adopting OSS.226
U.S. Department of Defense Advisory June 2003 Approved Established rules for open source use at DoD.227
U.S. Office of Management and Budget Advisory July 2004 Approved Agencies' procurements must consider cost of ownership and maintenance, as well as risks, security, and privacy of data. Policies are "technology and vendor neutral."228
U.S. (Jim's not sure) Navy Mandatory Mar.2008 Approved The Navy will acquire only systems based on open technologies and standards. Vice Adm. Mark Edwards, deputy chief of naval operations for communications broke the news March 5 to a Navy IT Day audience in Vienna, Va., sponsored by AFCEA International.229
U.S. Department of Defense Advisory 2006 Approved With the aim of fostering broader military adoption of open source software, the DoD defined an Open Technology Development roadmap in 2006. The Open Source Software Institute helped the Pentagon develop the roadmap.230
U.S. Department of Defense Advisory Oct. 2008 Approved The Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (Public Law No: 110-417) calls for the consideration of "open architecture software" in the procurement strategy for manned or unmanned aerial vehicles. Interestingly, the original version of the bill that passed in the House specifically called for the consideration of "open source software code;" however, in the final version of the bill, this was changed to "open architecture software," a designation that includes proprietary software with accessible source codes.231
U.S. Legislative RD Sep. 2008 Failed The Health e-Information Technology Act of 2008 called for the creation of a Federal Open Source Heath IT System as a low-cost approach to sharing electronic health records (EHRs). The legislation died in committee at the end of the Congressional term.232
U.S. Legislative RD Feb.2009 Approved The stimulus bill, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), called for a study and report on the "availability of open source health IT systems." The deadline for study results is slated for Oct. 1, 2010.233
U.S. Legislative Mandatory Apr.2009 Proposed Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV) proposed legislation in April for the adoption of a nationwide, open source program for sharing electronic health records. The legislation now awaits debate.234
Venezuela Executive Advisory Aug. 2002 Approved The government policy articulates "open source whenever possible, proprietary software only when necessary."235
Venezuela Executive Mandatory Dec. 2004 Approved The decree requires all public administration systems to shift to OSS, and in the cases where OSS cannot be used, the agency in need must take requests to adopt other solutions to the Ministry of Science and Technology. The decree also talks about RD, cooperation, and education in OSS.236
Venezuela Executive RD Nov. 2003 Approved The Venezuelan Academy of Open Source Software opens in Mérida.237
Vietnam Executive Preference Mar. 2004 Approved OSS plan for 2004-2008 approved by Prime Minister to develop and accelerate use of OSS for ICT applications; the measure takes steps to encourage OSS adoption in state-owned companies and ministries, but does not require it.238
Vietnam Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment RD Mar. 2004 Approved The Ministry will spend $20 million over four years to promote OSS use, develop new OSS applications, and build a skill pool.239
Vietnam Ninth Party National Congress RD Aug. 2002 Approved "The Ninth Party National Congress approved 'The Master Plan for IT Use and Development in Vietnam for the Period 2001-2005.' The Plan, overseen by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment (MOSTE) calls for the accelerated development of 'system, intermediate and application software in Vietnamese based Linux or other open source operating systems'."240
Vietnam Minister of Information and Communications Mandatory June 2009 Approved "June 30, 2009, 100% of clients of IT divisions of government agencies must be installed with open source software."241

State and Local

Government Branch or Agency Action DATE Status Details and Sources
Argentina, Buenos Aires City Legislative Mandatory 2004 Failed Three separate bills, from 2002-2004, requiring all information systems in the public sector must use OSS. All three bills were handled by the Committee of Education, Science and Technology, and the 2004 version went through the General Legislation and Work, and Budget and Public Finance committees as well.242
Argentina, Jujuy Province Legislative Mandatory May 2002 Proposed All state computer systems will run OSS. As of May 2002, the bill was being handled by the Committee of General Legislation.243
Argentina, La Plata City Legislative Mandatory Nov. 2002 Proposed Draft decree mandating use of free software for all local public administrations.244
Argentina, Buenos Aires Province Legislative Mandatory Nov. 2003 Failed Senate passed bill "E-135 2002 2003" on November 26, 2003; sent to House. Bill would have mandated exclusive use of OSS when possible.245
Argentina, Misiones Province Legislative Mandatory Nov. 2003 Proposed Bill D22034/03 proposed mandating migration to OSS in all provincial offices and businesses where the state was the majority stakeholder.246
Argentina, Santa Fe Province Legislative Preference Nov. 2004 Approved Law N 12.360 establishes a preference for open source software in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of Santa Fe's provincial government.247
Argentina, Santa Fe City Legislative Mandatory July 2004 Approved Council Bill 25495-O-04 established guidelines for software procurement by the municipal administration. It mandated that the source code be open and accessible, and the program "royalty free."248
Argentina, City of Porteña Legislative RD Apr. 2004 Approved Ordinance 1275/2004 (Peretti, Rossotto Sadone) directs the Municipal Executive Department of Porteña City to develop a plan "of migration" to transfer municipal information systems onto platforms of free programs and OSS, in accordance with the statements, plans and standards of the federal governemnt.249
Argentina, City of Rosario Legislative Mandatory Apr. 2004 Approved Ordinance passed which mandates the use of OSS in not only the municipal government, but also any businesses in which the city holds a majority stake. The legislation also lists, in order, the permitted alternatives that can be used if no OSS exists for a certain program. The "Principles" listed in the legislation indicate that the transition to OSS is driven by a desire for greater control over the function, design, and security of information systems, a desire for greater transparency, and a desire to advance the national software industry.250
Argentina, Mar del Plata City Legislative Mandatory Aug. 2006 Approved Council Bill 1850-V-05 was proposed in Mar del Plata's City council in Dec. 2005 and passed in Aug. 2006. It mandates migration to OSS in all municipal agencies and companies where the city is the majority stakeholder.251
Australia, Victoria Info and Comm Technology Ministry Preference Dec. 2003 Approved The Victoria government gave a $50,000 grant to Open Source Victoria (OSV), a cluster of over 80 firms working in technology related to FOSS as part of a gov't program to promote FOSS.252
Australia, ACT Legislative Advisory Dec. 2003 Approved "The Australian Capital Territory has become the first Australian jurisdiction to mandate the consideration of open source software for government entities."253
Australia, NSW Department of Commerce Preference Oct. 2003 Approved NSW gov't signed contract with U.S. OSS company, enabling agencies to make procurements.254
Australia, NSW Legislation Preference July 2003 Proposed Bill proposed similar to SA bill requiring public authorities to prefer OSS to commercial software.255
Australia, NSW N/A Preference Apr. 2005 Approved Government established an "accredited panel of companies" to provide "specialist assistance in the provision of open-source software services" so that "agencies will not have to go through the time-consuming and expensive process of running an open tender every time they require Linux software and services." Panelists included representatives from major OSS and computer companies.256
Australia, South Australia Legislation Preference 2003 Failed SA government "State Supply Amendment Bill 2003" stated that "A public authority must, in making a decision about the procurement of computer software… use open source software in preference to proprietary software." Bill Lapsed.257
Australia, Victoria Legislative Advisory June 2005 Approved A parliament committee recommends OSS for use in e-voting machines so voters can "be satisfied with the integrity of the system."258
Australia, Western Australia State Development Ministry RD Aug. 2004 Approved State Development Minister Clive Brown created an open source demonstration centre to promote and support the use of OSS in the region.259
Austria, Vienna City Council Preference Jan. 2005 Approved City of Vienna will begin "soft migration" to Open Office and Linux by offering the software to local government users in the second quarter of 2005.260
Belgium, Brussels-Capital Region Legislative Mandatory Feb. 2003 Proposed Requires the exclusive use of OSS in the public administration of the Brussels-Capital Region. Passed by "la Commission des Affaires générales de la Cocof" on February 11, 2003, but requires a vote by the Assembly. Currently in the Conseil d'Etat.261
Belgium, Brussels-Capital Region Legislative Mandatory Sept. 2003 Proposed Introduced at the federal level, this bill would require the exclusive use of OSS in the public administration of the Brussels-Capital Region.262
Brazil, multiple municipalities Legislative Preference 2003 Approved Amparo, Campinas, Porto Alegre, Recife, São Carlos, Solonopole, Ribeirão Pires, and Viçosa have passed laws requiring the use of OSS when available.263
Brazil, municipalities of Cuiritiba, Florianopolis, Sao Paulo N/A RD 2003 Proposed Cities "have considered or are considering open source preference proposals." Some proposals have already failed.264
Brazil, City of Rio de Janeiro Legislative Preference Passed in 2006. Rejected in May 2007 Rejected The Rio City Council initially passed and then overturned a veto by the city's mayor to establish an OSS preference in Municipal Law No. 4355/2006. However, this law was deemed unconstitutional by the state court in May 2007.265
Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul Legislative Mandatory Passed in 2003. Rejected in Apr. 2004 Rejected "In April 2004, the Brazilian Supreme Court voted unanimously to bar enforcement of a law passed by the Rio Grande do Sul state legislature, which required the use of OSS in government agencies when available."266
Brazil, State of Ceara Legislative Preference Apr. 2008 Approved Law passed that established the preferential use of free software as corporate standard tool for implementation and management of state policy of information technology and communication within the Government of the State of Ceara. This preferential use has already resulted in every department switching from the proprietary Oracle database to the open source PostgreSQL database.267
Brazil, State of Espirito Santo Legislative Preference Dec. 2002 Approved Requires state public administrations and state-owned companies to give preference to OSS systems and programs.268
Brazil, State of Mato Grosso do Sol Legislative Preference Apr. 2003 Approved Bill authorizing use of OSS in public administrations, state agencies, and companies; also lists OSS advantages.269
Brazil, State of Parana Legislative Preference June 2004 Approved State government shall prefer OSS operating systems and software in public administrations. The state technology organization is offering free software to 10,000 gov't employees.270
Brazil, State of Santa Catarina Legislative Preference Jan. 2004 Approved Preferential use of OSS by state administrations and agencies.271
Brazil, State of São Paulo State Gov't RD Nov. 2004 Approved OSS company signed a cooperation agreement with the State Gov't to train 980 state government professionals in OSS and OSS IT management.272
Brazil, States of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo Legislative Preference Feb. 2004 Proposed OSS proposals pending.273
Canada, Vancouver Legislative Advisory May 2009 Approved "The City of Vancouver, when replacing existing software or considering new applications, will place open source software on an equal footing with commercial systems during procurement cycles."274
Denmark, City of Tønder Municipality of Tønder RD Feb. 2009 Approved All students and teachers at the elementary school in the municipality of Tønder were given a 1 Gbyte USB key pre-loaded with open source applications last week. The municipality as a matter of principle says it will use open source when possible, and in this case it certainly is, says Softwareborsen's Morten Kristoffer Hansen275
Finland, Turku N/A RD Aug. 2004 Failed Move to Linux seemed probable after pilot testing in 2001, but the city abandoned the switch in favor of Windows systems.276
France , Brest N/A RD Apr. 2005 Approved City is distributing CDs to the population with open-source word processing software, a standard spreadsheet, and web browser.277
France, Arles IT Department Preference May 2005 Approved With the implementation of "Open Elec" software, all PCs in the municipality have migrated to open source office suites, databases, and application servers, though they are still running proprietary operating systems.278
France, Paris City Council Preference Nov. 2005 Approved In 2004, The city council pushed for a shift to OSS, despite a report that indicated an immediate, system-wide shift would be costly and infeasible. As of November 2005, 196 of the Paris government's 395 servers were running Linux, and the government invited 46,000 staff to use OSS.279
France, Paris The Paris regional council Advisory Oct. 2007 Approved The Paris regional council distributed 175,000 USB keys loaded with Open Source software to school students and their teachers at a cost of 2.6 million euro. This was done to create equal access to proprietary and free and open software to youth. 280
France, Paris Paris city council Mandatory July 2007 Approved The Paris city council is installing Open Source software on their new laptops. The French city representatives are attracted by Open Source's 'culture of creativity and independence'. This type of software gives them more control over the entire data process.281
Germany, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania National Audit Office Preference Nov. 2003 Proposed National audit office of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, which also provides support to the federal government, changed over to Linux. The entire federal state plans to change over to open source.282
Germany, Schwaebisch Hall N/A Preference Mar. 2003 Approved The City completed its plan of converting all 300 desktops and 15 servers from Microsoft to Linux software.283
Germany, Frisia N/A Preference June 2005 Approved The regional government announced plans to migrate to OSS by 2007.284
Germany, Mannheim N/A Preference Dec. 2005 Approved The city has already migrated all servers to OSS. Next, all 3,500 desktops will move to open source office suites and operating systems. The reason cited is to support open standards, not costs. In fact, they state that they do not necessarily expect cost savings with OSS.285
Germany, Munich Legislation Preference Sept. 2004 Approved Spending ~30 million Euros switching 14,000 computers (May 2003). Officially adopted on June 16, 2004, paused in Fall 2004 because of legal concerns, then resumed in September 2004.286
Germany, Munich Legislative Mandatory May 2003 Approved Munich government voted to switch 14,000 computers from Windows to Linux operating system, despite Microsoft's efforts to change their mind.287
Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt IT Policy maker for the State government of Sachsen-Anhalt Preference Sept. 2008 Approved The state government of Sachsen-Anhalt agreed on its new IT strategy stating that the use of Open Standards and Open Source will be encouraged. They find Open Source as a way to avoid vendor lock-in and help reduce license costs.288
India, State of Goa Department of Information Technology Preference Jan. 2002 Approved IT Secretary issued circular recommending the use of Linux.289
India, State of Kerala Legislative Advisory Jan. 2007 Proposed Kerala state to support private initiatives in development of IT parks. Proposals include establishment of an International Centre for Free Software and Computing for Development, ITES Training Centre (in Kochi), and extension of Internet to all educational institutions and villages by 2010.290
India, State of Kerala Legislative Preference June 2007 Approved Kerala state government partnered with Red Hat India to train teachers and government users to use the Linux platform.291
India, State of Maharashtra Ministry of IT RD Apr. 2005 Approved Ministry of IT launched a freely distributed CD of an Indianised GNU/Linux operating system with open source applications.292
India, State of Tamil Nadu Legislative Preference May 2005 Approved Government provides Linux in desktop systems only used for office application. The managing director of the Electronics Corp. of Tamil Nadu said that government offices that want to use Windows must prove it to be absolutely necessary.293
India, State of Kerla The State of Kerla RD June 2007 Approved "According to a statement, the Kerala government has identified free and open-source software as a major strategic component in its efforts to build an inclusive information society." Kerala has always been a leader in literacy, and now we want to make Kerala a leader in e-literacy, said Kerala Chief Minister V. S. Achutanandan. We believe that free and open-source software is an essential component in our drive to democratize information technology and bring its benefits to all sections of society.294
Italy, Province of Emilia Romagna Legislative Preference Nov. 2004 Approved Law 24/05/2004 N.11 says, "The Regional Structure must program the introduction of FLOSS, Open Data Standards and open/free communication protocols." Stated goals of the law are to provide freedom to access and to remove technical "barriers," such as non-standard formats.295
Italy, Province of Lombardy Legislative Preference May 2003 Proposed OSS preference proposal introduced.296
Italy, Province of Pescara Legislative Preference Nov. 2004 Approved May 2002 motion to introduce and develop FOSS in the local public administration. Province also set out to purchase Linux systems for school construction and public education.297
Italy, Rome N/A RD Feb. 2004 Approved Linux will be used in some of the public administration's computers as a test.298
Italy, Rome e-Governance Department RD Feb. 2007 Approved Province of Rome to hold contest for 18-24 year old programmers. Contestants must use OSS and "develop a completely new application" that "should provide an original solution to typical public administration tasks." The top contestant will receive 4,500 euros. The contest goal is to promote OSS for local public administration.299
Italy, Tuscany Legislative Preference Jan. 2004 Approved Bill 186, states a preference for OSS in all IT use by the regional public administration.300
Italy: Florence, Lodi, Milan, Pescara, Argenta, Torino, Pistoia Green Party Motions in City governments Preference 2001-2003 Approved Motions to introduce and expand the use of OSS in the public administration. The bills share some of the same language and seem to be initiated all around by the Green Party.301 [Note: some are still pending.]
Italy, Umbria The Regional Government of Umbria RD March 2007 Approved "The regional government of Umbria is investing 100,000 euro to promote the use of Open Source in local schools. The Italian region will soon train students, teachers and education management in the use of this type of software." The initiative, unveiled in February, is one of the first concrete steps in implementing a regional Open Source law .302
Japan: Prefecture of Hokkaido, Sumoto City N/A Preference Feb. 2004 Proposed Announced or considering systems migration to OSS.303
Japan: Prefecture of Nagasaki N/A Preference 2003 Proposed Announced business plans promoting OSS.304
Malaysia, state of Terrengganu State prime minister Preference Feb. 2005 / May 2006 Approved State will emulate Spain's Extremadura region in promoting OSS. Government issued reports and held seminars on the use of OSS at program launching ceremony.305
Netherlands, Municipality of Eindhoven City Council Preference Nov. 2004 Proposed Municipality wants a plan to use OSS by Spring 2005 believing it can reduce IT costs. The motion was initiated by the political party SP.306
Netherlands, Amsterdam N/A Preference Oct. 2003 / Dec. 2006 Proposed OSS test for server and desktop applications could lead to migration of 15,000 city council desktops.307 The City's contract with Microsoft expires in 2008, so it will test the Linux operating system with the city's housing service and the borough of Zeeburg before deciding whether to renew their Microsoft contract or move to OSS.308
Netherlands, Amsterdam Legislative RD Apr. 2009 Approved A motion unanimously adopted by the City Council of Amsterdam instucts city administration to present a plan and budget for complete migration to open source. The motion also demands double the scope of its current open source desktop pilot.309
Netherlands, Municipality of Haren N/A Preference Apr. 2005 Proposed The municipality wants to establish an open source server-based computing environment and is evaluating "the use of open source desktop solutions aiming to encourage and to implement free software within the municipality in 2005."310
Norway, Bergen N/A Preference June 2004 Approved The city will move education and health servers to OSS due to cost and system reliability preference. The large scale migration was about 50 percent complete by November 2004.311
Norway, Oslo Education office RD Nov. 2003 Approved The project aims "to use Linux throughout all the Schools in Oslo, and also have it integrated with the municipalities' administrative systems."312
Spain, Andalucia Legislative Preference Mar. 2003 Approved All educational computers and public Internet sites must be compatible with free software.313
Spain, Asturias N/A Preference Nov. 2004 Proposed The Asturian government has agreed on a plan to gradually install OSS on all public administration desktops.314
Spain, Barcelona City Council Advisory Dec. 2004 Approved IT strategy calls for the promotion of OSS within the City of Barcelona's administration.315 By July 2005, "the city has distributed more than 60,000 CDs with CATix, an internationalized version of GNU/Linux in Catalan."316
Spain, Canary Islands Legislative Advisory July 2001 Approved A nonbonding resolution urging the use of FOSS.317
Spain, Catalonia Legislative Preference May 2002 Proposed Bill would require a preference for OSS in all public administrative bodies.318
Spain, Catalonia Ministry of Education RD Oct. 2004 Proposed Ministry will pursue OSS options in schools beginning in the 2005-2006 school year.319
Spain, Region of Catalonia Dept. of Governance and Public Admin. RD June 2008 Approved "Catalonia will spend 50,000 euro to develop Open Source professionals."320
Spain, Region of Catalonia Center for Telecommunications and Information Technology (CITI) Advisory July 2008 Approved CITI presented its "Guidelines for Open Source Software," informing Catalonia's public administrations about the benefits and opportunities of open source. CITI's director believes the paper will encourage public administrations to use Open Source.321
Spain, Extremadura Legislative Preference Nov. 2002 / May 2004 Approved The Spanish region of Extremadura has gone open source, deciding to move its entire administration to Linux and open source software within a year.322
Spain, Galicia Galician Council for Information and Industry RD May 2006 Approved The Galician government helped set up Forxa, a "repository for Open Source software," with hopes that it would stimulate the region's software industry.323
Spain, Madrid Legislative Advisory June 2009 Approved The City Council of Madrid opened a technology development and training center, aiming to expand FOSS among small businesses. Named "Madrid on Rails" the center costs about 1.3 million euro. It is funded by the City Council whose goal is to make Madrid a world leader in OSS technologies.324
Spain, Valencia N/A Advisory Feb. 2004 Approved Launched Spring 2003 initiative to promote OSS use in educational field.325
Spain, Valencia Executive Mandatory May 2005 Proposed A spokesman for the administration said that public officials have a duty not to pay for software, and that the regional administration would shift to OSS within two years.326
Switzerland, Geneva Canton Tax Office Preference Feb. 2003 Approved Along with a tax declaration program, Swiss authorities sent all taxpayers copies of two open source programs.327
Switzerland, Zurich N/A Advisory Sept. 2003 Proposed City of Zurich to report on what it would take to start a transfer to FOSS. 328 In 2005, "the city announced that open source as well as proprietary software will be treated equivalently."329
Switzerland, Zurich Zurich Preference 2005 Approved Open source and proprietary software should be treated as equivalents, but open source would be the preferred option if the project was reasonable.330
Thailand, Bangkok Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Preference Feb. 2003 Approved Policy announced that BMA would use OSS because of cost concerns.331
UK, Cheshire County County Council RD June 2005 Approved The county is the first to test OSS in the national OS Lab in Manchester.332
UK, City of Newham City Council Preference Nov. 2003 / Aug. 2004 Failed Newham council announced that, after study, significant savings not achievable from OSS migration.333 After the study, Newham signed a ten-year deal with Microsoft.334
UK, City of Nottingham City Council Preference June 2003 Proposed Council examined feasibility of migrating its 6,500 desktops to OSS.335
UK, West Yorkshire Police RD Oct. 2002 Approved In pilot program, West Yorkshire police tested Linux workstations on their 3,500 desktops.336
Uruguay, City of San José Legislative Preference June 2003 Approved Resolution passed calling for exclusive use of OSS within administration.337
U.S., Alabama Legislation Advisory 2005 Failed Legislation introduced in March 2004 to expressly permit OSS use in state agencies where feasible; failed in committee.338
U.S., Arizona Legislative Mandatory Mar. 2006 Proposed Bill to mandate the use of open source software in vote tabulating programs for all state and local elections.339
U.S., Beaverton, Oregon Executive RD Jan. 2005 Approved City and state will provide $1.2 million for a facility to lure open-source start-ups.340
U.S., California Performance Review Commission Advisory 2004 Approved A commission appointed by the governor recommended that state agencies implement OSS where feasible.341
U.S., California Legislative Mandatory   Failed "Digital Software Security Act." All software for the state must be open source.342
U.S., Hawaii Legislative Preference Apr. 2003 Failed Bill would have required report on OSS use and the creation of a state policy supporting OSS applications within government agencies. Bill passed Senate and was left in House committees.343
U.S., Hawaii Legislative Advisory 2004 Approved 2004 HB1739 establishes OSS pilot project in Department of Education. Passed after committee amendments decreased appropriations from $50,000 to "$1 or so much thereof as may be necessary for fiscal year 2004-2005."344
U.S., Massachusetts CIO Office Advisory Feb. 2003 Approved IT Commission recommends, "Leverage ownership of existing application assets by establishing an 'open source' program within the Commonwealth."345
U.S., Massachusetts Secretary of Admin and Finance Mandatory Sept. 2003 / Jan. 2004 Failed Government-wide policy of "open standards, open source" (when available) for all future spending on information technology.346 Later the IT Acquisition Policy was clarified, saying that IT acquisitions shall be based on "best value" and consider "all possible solutions," including software with open standards and open source.347
U.S., Massachusetts Information Technology Division Preference Sept. 2005 Approved "The OpenDocument format must be used for office documents," which will result in the use of OSS office suites. In July 2007, the state added Microsoft's Open XML format to its approved list for open standards.348
U.S., Massachusetts Executive Advisory July 2007 Proposed Having already mandated the use of open format applications, the executive branch "policy update would list [Microsoft's standardized open format application] Office Open XML as acceptable 'open formats' for use by executive-branch state agencies."349
U.S., Minnesota Executive RD May 2008 Approved State government of Minnesota gave $177,108 to train employees at 6 metro area businesses in OSS as part of a Department of Employment and Economic Development Minnesota Job Skills Partnership (MJSP) grant.350
U.S., Minnesota Legislative Mandatory Apr. 2006 Proposed "S.F. No. 3730: A bill…requiring state agencies to use open source software for creation of public documents…Referred to the Committee on State and Local Government Operations."351
U.S., New York Legislative Advisory June 2003 Proposed Would require state agencies to consider OSS during software acquisitions within state agencies.352
U.S., New York Legislative RD July 2007 Proposed Bill introduced in July 2007. Would require state's IT director to study the impact of using OSS.353
U.S., New York Legislative RD Mar. 3 2009 Proposed An act to amend the tax law, in relation to providing a tax credit to individuals for up to two hundred dollars of expenses related to the development and posting of an open source or free license program.354
U.S., North Carolina Legislative Preference 2005 Approved After concluding a 2 year study for procurement of election-related software, the State Board of Elections indicated that it would "like to move to open source coding for election software and firmware."355
U.S., Oklahoma Legislative Mandatory Feb. 2003 Proposed Bill proposed prohibits acquiring software unless the source code is provided. Reintroduced January 9, 2004. No action taken as of 2005.356
U.S., Oklahoma Legislative RD June 2009 Approved Oklahoma House of Representatives approved a study to analyze "government entities' usage of open source technology products and consider possible application to Oklahoma state government in order to realize savings."357
U.S., Oregon Legislative Preference May 2003 Failed SB 941, for considering OSS during procurement. As of 8/27/2003, bill was "in committee upon adjournment."358 Similar House bill, HB 2892, left in committee.359
U.S., Oregon Legislative Advisory Mar. 2003 Failed Rep. Phil Barnhart (D-Central Lane and Linn Counties) has introduced HB 2892 to require state agencies to consider open source software when considering software, system, or network computer purchases.360
U.S, Oregon Legislative Preference Mar. 2004 Failed Oregon's Legislature last year debated a bill to require public-sector agencies to consider open-source for any new software-development projects and to require written justification any time proprietary software was chosen instead. The bill died in committee. The criticism was that the Legislature shouldn't tell state agencies what type of software to run, says state Rep. Jerry Krummel.361
U.S., Texas Legislative Advisory May 2003 Proposed Left pending in committee 05/08/2003, revised in 2003 to call on the Dept. of Information Resources to issue procurement guidelines that include simple consideration of open source; no action taken as of July 2007. 362
U.S, Texas Legislative Mandatory Feb. 2007 Expired In Texas, SB 446, authored by state Sen. Juan Hinojosa, would mandate ODF as the required standard for state agencies. The act, if passed, would take effect on December 1, 2007, but agencies would e given until September 1, 2008, to comply.363
U.S., Texas Legislative Mandatory Feb. 2009 Expired Fort Worth State Representative Mark Veasey filed a bill this session that would require Texas State Agencies to create all of their documents in an open, freely-available file format standard.364
U.S, Wisconsin Legislative Mandatory Nov. 2005 Proposed Bill would require that "the coding for the software that is used to operate the system on Election Day and to tally the votes cast is publicly accessible and may be used to independently verify the accuracy and reliability of the operating and tallying procedures to be employed at any election."365
U.S., States of KS, MA, MO, PA, RI, UT, VA, WV Cross State RD June 2004 Approved Launched June 30, 2004, "The Government Open Code Collaborative is a voluntary collaboration between public sector entities and non-profit academic institutions created for the purpose of encouraging the sharing, at no cost, of computer code developed for and by government entities where the redistribution of this code is allowed."366

Additional Sources

UNCTAD Report. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 114-9.


Compilation of Bills:


OSS News Sources:


David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem,"

9 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003),


AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatroy Studies,

"Government Policy Toward Open Source Software," Robert W. Hahn, editor. 2002.


EU Interchange of Data Between Administrations (IDA)

Open Source Observatory:

"Pooling Open Source Software," June2002


EU Open Source Observatory and Repository,


UN Conference on Trade and Development - Electronic Commerce Branch

Free and Open Source Software FOSS (links and reports):


UN Development Programme International Open Source Network



EU Infonomics FLOSS final report


Proposals in Argentina:


Proposals in Italy:


List of Different Groups / Countries Using Linux

Linux Lessons, "Who's Using Linux?"$45







1 India's Centre for Development of Advanced Computing under the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, the Philippines' Commission on Information and Communications Technology, various Chinese provincial ministries, Hong Kong's Open Source Software Centre managed by the Hong Kong Productivity Council, Macau's Productivity and Technology Transfer Centre establish by the Macau Government, Vietnam's Ministry of Information and Communications, Thailand's National Science and Technology Development Agency under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Japan's Open Source Software Center of Information under the Technology Promotion Agency, and Pakistan's Open Source Resource Center under the Ministry of Information Technology. Singapore's The SIM University*, Malaysia's Asia e University*, and Indonesia's School of Electrical Engineering Informatics*.

* signifies non-governmental participants

2 Marko Mannila, "Free and Open Source Software: Approaches in Brazil and Argentina," June 2004, page 25


5 Legislation on the use of Free Software in Argentina,


7 James Riley, "Australian Tax Office to 'Open up' software policy," The Australian, February 24, 2004, available on Open Source Industry Australia,


8 Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, Media release August 31, 2004.


9 ZDNet Australia, "Commonwealth locking out open source: Democrats," Andrew Colley, 30 September 2003,2000061733,20278792,00.htm

Australian Senate Bill found here: or

Computerworld Australia, "Government Takes Cautionary Stance on Open Source Software," Nadia Cameron, September 3, 2003.


10 "A Guide to Open Source Software for Australian Government Agencies," Australian Government Information Management Office, April 18, 2005,

Also: "Australia levels playing field for open source software," Public Sector Technology and Management, April 12, 2005.; also James Riley, "Govt drives open source uptake," Australian IT, April 18, 2005,


11International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


EU IDA, Open Source Observatory, "Belgium opts for open standards," July 6, 2004,


17 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


18 eGovernment News, "Belgian Government promotes open standard", October 8, 2004.


UNCTAD Science, Technology and ICT Branch,


Red Orbit, "Brazil's Goverment Snuggles up to Linux,"Alberto Alerigi Jr., November 23, 2003.


22 Alex Goldmark, "Brazil makes move to Open Source Software," NPR News, January 31, 2005


23 Steve Kingstone, "Brazil adopts open-source software," BBC News, June 2, 2005,

Also: Ingrid Marson, "Brazil to mandate open source use," ZDNet UK, April 27, 2005,,39020390,39196592,00.htm


24 Notified via Microsoft Correspondence (February 2004) Camara Brasileira de Comercio Electronico: See "Software." http://www.camara-


Brazilian Legislature:

PL 2152/2003:

PL 7120/2002:

PL 4275/2001:

PL 3051/2000:

PL 2269/1999:


25"Brazil launches plan to raise PC use among poor" India Daily, May 13, 2005,


26Brazil, "Linux Friendly Brazil," Leonardo Stavale, August, 2004,


27 Info World, "IBM opens Linux center in Brazil," Robert McMillan, September 2004,



28 Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia - Software Livre, October 2003.



30 Software, "Governo brasileiro assina acordo de cooperação com o governo coreano," November 17, 2004.




32 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


33 UNDP Press Release, "Bulgaria to Enhance e-Governance Initiatives by Launching Free and Open Source Software Project," June 7, 2004


34 "Master Plan for Implementation of FOSS in Cambodia" February 19, 2005, available via

Alternative Link with same information:


35 Statement of the Deputy Prime Minister H.E Sok An made during the 2002 IT Awareness Seminar in Cambodia


"Open Source Software in Canada: Open Source Business Opportunities for Canada's Information and Communications Technology Sector: A Collaborative

Fact Finding Study," e-Cology Corporation, September 2003,


40 Journal of Public Procurement, Volume 8, Issue 1, 70-97, 2008 - page 15


41 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


42 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


43 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


44 China Economic Net, "China's OSS alliance is founded to withstand Microsoft", August 9, 2004.

See also: Interfax China Business News, "China Sets up New Alliance to Push the Development and Promote the Use of Open Source Software." July

26, 2004


48Open Source News "OSS Law Project Emphasizes Security Factors in Costa Rica", September 2003.


49 Journal of Public Procurement, Volume 8, Issue 1, 70-97, 2008 - page 13


CNET "Cuba to migrate to open-source software" Richard Thurston, February 19,2007

Reuters, "Cuba launches own Linux variant to counter U.S."


53Open Source Observatory, iDABC, EU, "The use of Open Source Software in Czech Republic," November 30, 2005.

Czech OSS Alliance:


54 "ICA Country Report—Denmark 2003,"

Open Source and Industry Alliance, "Roundup of Selected OSS Legislative Activity Worldwide," 2005,, "Danish government adopts a pragmatic approach to open source," June 27, 2003.


55Ministry of Technology, Science, and Innovation, Brief, "The Danish Software Strategy," October 2002

Available in English: June 20, 2003,


56 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


57International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


58Kirk, Jeremy. "Denmark to Test Open XML, ODF." IDG News Service. 5 July 2007.,134168-c,opensource/article.html


UNCTAD Science, Technology and ICT Branch,


Public OSS. "Ecuador at 1014." May 21, 2008.


European Commission, Directorate General XIII, Information Society Technologies, "A thematic priority for Research and Development under the Specific

Programme 'Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area' in the Community sixth Framework Programme" 2003-2004 Workprogramme, page 6 AND


62EU Directorate Information Society, "eEurope 2005 Action Plan," page 10-1. June 2002.


63Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Econoic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.

"The Role of eGovernment for Europe's Future." September 26, 2003,


64International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


65International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


66International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


67Information Society Technologies, "2003-2004 Workprogramme,",

text quoted from Open Source and Industry Alliance, "Roundup of Selected OSS Legislative Activity Worldwide," 2005,


68International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


70 European Greens, Draft Normal Resolutions, "Ecology of Information Exchanges," Jan. 04.


European Greens, Proposed Workshops, "Information Ecology."


72 "EU-Funding for Open Source development," European Union Open Source Observatory, January 5, 2005,


73 Sylvia Carr, "EU to fund global research on open source," CNET News, May 26, 2005,


74 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


75European Union, "The IDA Open Source Migration Guidelines," November 8, 2003


76IST Web, "Free / Open source software actions in European programs," May 8, 2003.



"Recommendation on the Openness of the Code and Interfaces of State Information Systems," Ministry of Finance working paper, October 2003. English version

of report available:, "Finland: Recommendation on the Openness of the Code and Interfaces of State

Information Systems now available!" Open Source Observatory, February 2004.


78LinuxWorld, "Update: Linux Bill Introduced in Finland," June 18, 2002

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


79 Linux Journal, "Finland Works on an Applied Linux Institute." Frederick Noronha, September 3, 2003.



United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications

for ICT policy and development. Pages 116.


82 David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem,"

9 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003), page 375,


83 "The French Ministry of Defence chooses to develop a Linux-based system for optimising security," European Union Open Source Observatory,

September 24, 2004,


84 "eGovernment in France," European Union Open Source Observatory, June 2005,


85 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


86 Linux Today, "EuroLinux Alliance: French Govt. Agency to Enforce Open Standards and Promote Open Source/Free software," November 21, 2001


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software:

Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 114-9.




87Computer World, "French Government to Test Open-Source on the Desktop," February 11, 2004, Peter Sayer,10801,90122,00.html


ZD Net, "Paris Eyes Open-Source Switch," February 12, 2004, Christophe Guillemin and Matthew Broersma,39020387,39146152,00.htm


88 European Commission's eGovernment Portal,

89 EU Open Source Observatory and Repository,


International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


95 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


96 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


97CNET, "Linux contract treads on Microsoft turf," Stephen Shankland, June 03, 2003


98Germany Ministry of the Interior, "Migration Guide: A guide to migrating the basic software components on server and workstation computers," July 2003


99 "Federal Ministry of the Interior publishes migration manual," July 11, 2003,




Alastair Otter, "Ghana pursuing open source policy - Minister", April 27, 2007.


102Hong Kong, Information Technology Services Department, "2004 Digital 21 Strategy,"


"LCQ17: Adoption of open source software," A written reply by the Secretary for Commerce, Industry and Technology, Mr Henry Tang, to a question

by the Hon Sin Chung-kai in the Legislative Council, June 25, 2003,


103 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


104 The Swedish Agency for Public Management, "Free and Open Source Software- a feasibility study," 2003, page 28


Ingrid Marson, "Free CDs spread open source in India," May 25, 2005, CNET News,


Dinesh C. Sharma, "Indian president calls for open source in defense," CNET News, July 7, 2004,


Address at the Dedication Function at International Institute of Information Technology, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, "Convergence of

Technologies," May 28, 2003,


107United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 118.


108 ZDNet UK, "India shares open-source experience," Matt Loney, September 24, 2004,,39020387,39167741,00.htm

National Informatics Centre web page:


109 India's Ministry of Communications Information Technology Department of Information Technology, Policyonopensandards.pdf +india+open+source +government +policyhl=engl=us


110 CNET Asia, "Sun seeds Indon schools," Winston Chai, March 13 2003.,39001153,39119381,00.htm


111 CNET Asia, "Inodnesia Government launches IGOS release 3," October 27, 2006,


Sun Global Communities,


AME Info, "UNFPA and the Government of Ireland Develop Free Open Source Software for Knowledge Sharing…" December 11, 2003.


114 Arutz Sheva, Israel National News, "Finance Ministry Weaning Israel Off of Microsoft" December 28, 2003


Information Week, "Israel Suspends Acquisitions Of Microsoft Software," Dec. 30, 2003


115 Gillian Law, "Israel snubs Microsoft, moves to open-source software," IDG News Service, January 4, 2004, available at Computer World,,10801,88800,00.html.


116 Arutz Shevea, Israel National News, "Israeli Gov't Moves Away From Microsoft," December 17, 2003


117 "IBM, Israeli ministry to back open source start-ups." Reuters. 25 April 2005.


118 Linux Today, "Proposed Law Requires Only Open Source Software in Israeli Government," October 17, 2002


"Italian National Plan for Information Society calls for Open Source Software," European Union Open Source Observatory, August 7, 2004,


120 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


121International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 116.


Bill: Atto Senato 1188,

Other Bills found here: Associazione Software Libero, "Free Software in Public Administration,"


123, "Linux: ora anche la pubblica amministrazione puo usarlo," February 17, 2004


Governo Italiano, "L'Open Source Nella Pubblica Amministrazione," February 17, 2004,


124 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


125 Yusof, Khairil. "Italian provinces seek international FOSS partners." International Open Source Network. 21 April 2006.


130, "Advocating Linux and open source in Amman, Jordan,"


International Development research Center,


Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Initiative,


For procurement specifically see:


133, "Malaysia Sets Up $36m Open Source Fund," John Lui, October 30, 2003,39024651,39116677,00.htm


134The Star Online, "Green light for Open Source from PM," Charles F. Moreira, August 9, 2002


CNET, "Malaysia gets behind open source." August 28, 2003


135 "Malaysia to set up open source reference centre," The Age, September 1, 2003,


OS Competency Centre homepage:


136 Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Initiative:


137 Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers, "FMM Press Release on Malaysia Open Source Software Alliance (MOSSA) - Position Statement on Software Neutrality and Openness,"



Baker, Noonan, Seavey, and Moon, "State Level Variations in Open Source Policy." Georgia Institute of Technology


141 451 CAOS--A blog for the enterprise open source community,

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


143 451 CAOS--A blog for the enterprise open source community,


144 NewsForge, "Ten big Dutch cities demand open standards," Koen Vervloesem, January 16, 2007


ICTU, "Program for Open Standards and Open Source Software,"


146 "Software Policy for the Future," The Norwegian Board of Technology, December 2004,


147 "Norwegian Standards Council Recommends Mandatory use of ODF and PDF", May 13, 2007


148 Wired News, "Norway Says No Way to Microsoft," July 16, 2002,1367,53898,00.html


149 Statskonsult, "Open-source software," August 2001,



International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


152Daily Times (Pakistan), "IT Ministry to train 4,000 govt servants." April 24, 2004


153 The Government of Pakistan Establishment of Task Force For Linux,


154 Pakistan's IT Policy and Action Plan,


"Paraguay Government Studies Open-Source Migration," Business News Americas, May 20, 2005, available at Linux Insider,


156Company Correspondence(February 2004)

Legislative proposals -

December 2001:

March 2002:

April 2002:

May 2002:

Peruvian Legislation Passed Explicitly Technologically Neutral:



Promulgated October 17, 2005.


158 Journal of Public Procurement, Volume 8, Issue 1, 70-97, 2008 - page 12-13


159Advanced Science and Technology Institute (Philippines),


Bayanihan Linux,


160 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


161 Public OSS. "HB 1716." February 28, 2008.


163 Company Correspondence(February 2004)

" 'Basis standard for an Open Source software introduction and a technical support' in Polish Government.'" IDABC. 22 July 2005.



International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


167 EU IDA, eGovernment News, "Open source bill defeated in Portugal; introduced in Belgium," October 30, 2003.

168 "Sun Microsystems Portuguese Ministry of Education sign cooperation protocol" European Union Open Source Observatory, March 2004.

169 EU Open Source Observatory and Repository,


EU Open Source Observatory and Repository,


EU Open Source Observatory and Repository,


Digital Communities, "Russian Government IT Development Strategy: Free and Open Source Software."



Yun Dae-won, "Local Autonomous Governments To Adopt Linux Operating System," Korean IT News, February 23, 2004.


173 "South Korea Pushes Linux in Public Sector," March 28, 2005.


174 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


175 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Policy Initiatives"


176 CNET, "Korea launches a switch to open source," Seung eun Myung, October 1, 2003


MozillaZine, "South Korean Goverment Adopting Mozilla and Other Open Source Software," October 29, 2003


"Korea launches a switch to open source." Lupa World. 7 July 2006.


177 Mereness, Jeremy. "Open Source in South Korea." TechLearning. 1 October 2006.


178 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 116.


179 "SK: Chair of Slovak OpenSource Initiative outlines vision," August 28, 2006, Open Source News


180 European Union Interchange of Data Between Administrations, "Slovenia: Government Adopts Non-aligned Floss Policy," October 2003.


Text of Slovenian policy document available:$file/OSS_Policy_Final_2003.10.16_en.pdf via


181Open Source Software in Government, South African Government website.


Government OSS Strategy Document,

Tectonic, "SA Cabinet approves OSS strategy," June 12, 2003,

Tectonic, "SA minister outlines OSS plans," May 14, 2003,

Tectonic, "Open source software makes sense to government," March 5, 2003,


Presentation by Dept. of Science and Technology, March 2005, SANGONeT Conference and Exhibition 2005


182 John Yarney, "South Africa taps open source to boost local IT," IDG News Source, December 1, 2003.


183 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 115.


"Policy On Free and Open Source Software Use for South African Government." Department of Public Service and Administration. August 2006.


184 Tectonic, "SA government to switch to open source",


"Criteria for the Security, Standardization, and Conservation of Applications used by the State Administration," June 2003. See Section 6 under the Criterios de

Normalización Text available in Spanish:


186 EU Interchange of Data between Administrations (IDA), "Symposium on use of Open Source in EU Public Administrations," February, 2001


"Spanish administrations take a bold stance on open source software," e-Government News, May 26, 2005.


187 Spanish Senate.


188 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


189 Spanish Senate. August 21, 2002.


190 "Spanish administrations take a bold stance on open source software," e-Government News, May 26, 2005.


191 "Government to provide funding for open source software projects." IDABC. 22 May 2006.


192 "Government to provide funding for open source software projects." IDABC. 22 May 2006.


193 "Congress urges government to promote free software." IDABC. 16 January 2007.


195 Mr. Eran Wickramaratne, chair of the ICT Agency, from a speech given at the Sri Lanka Open Source Conference, January 23, 2004. Text available at the ICT

Agency website:


196 Statskontoret, "Free and Open source software - a feasibility study," August 2003.

The text can also be found here:


In 2005 an association of county councils, municipalities, and private health care providers issued a report on Sweden's legal framework for OSS.


197Programverket home page:, in English:


Open Source Observatory, IDABC, EU. "Open Source in the Swedish Public Sector", November 29, 2005.


198 "Swiss go sweet on OSS," Kable's Government Computing, March 26, 2004,


199 Asia Computer Weekly, "Taiwan to plug open-source software," Sharon Chuang, October 27, 2003


200Taipei Times, "Government plans to implement open source code system," June 4, 2002,

Chai, Winston. "Taiwan: Open-source pressure won MS price cut." CNet Asia. 3 March 2003.,1000000308,2131322,00.htm.


201 Tan, Aaron. "Taiwan mandates Linux-ready PC's." ZDNet Asia. 26 June 2006.,39044164,39370618,00.htm.


202 Tanzania Development Gateway, "Open Source to Leapfrog the Digital Divide in Tanzania."


203 UNCTAD Science, Technology and ICT Branch,


Company Correspondence (February 2004)


205 The Nation, "Panel to oversee open-source drafts," Asina Pornwasin, May 19, 2003


206 Jan Krikke, "Microsoft Loses to Linux in Thailand Struggle,", November 13, 2003.


208 Ingrid Marson, "Linux Thais up more support," ZDNet UK, February 10, 2005,,39020390,39187561,00.htm.


209 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Software Policy Initiatives"


210 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Software Policy Initiatives"


211 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Software Policy Initiatives"


212 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications for ICT policy and development. Pages 119.


Duangtip Surintatip, "Policy and Regulatory Update - Thailand," September 2004,


213 FutureGov,


UNCTAD Science, Technology and ICT branch,


"Open Source Software Use within UK Government, Version 2," e-Government Unit, October 28, 2004.


2002 Office of Government Commerce OSS Procurment Guide:


Office of Government Commerce, Open Source Software page.


OSS Trials Final Report (October 2004):


217 Computer World, "Nine British government agencies to test open-source software," Todd R. Weiss, October 9, 2003,,10801,85896,00.html


OGC News Release, October 9, 2003:


218Government Open Source Software Trials Final Report, October 2004.


219International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


220Robert Jaques, "UK government turns to open source,", June 20, 2005.



International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


223Andrij Zinchenko, "Open source battles Microsoft in Ukraine," News Forge, June 27, 2005,


225 International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "European OSS Policy Initiatives"


226 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," United Nations, 2003.


227 Government Computer News, "Open-source software gets nod from DOD," Patricia Daukantas, June 16, 2003


228Office of Management and Budget, "Software Acquisition," M-04-16, July 1, 2004. Karen S. Evans and Robert A. Burton


229 Federal Computer Week, "Navy to focus only on open source," March 6, 2008,


Arst Technica, "Department of Defense launches open source site," February 9, 2009,

Ars Technica, "Department of defense study urges open source adoption," August 20, 2006,


Government Computer News, "Can open source survive Congress?,"

Arst Technica, "Department of Defense launches open source site," February 9, 2009,


Advance for Health Information Professionals, "Open source EHRS set to grow," June 17, 2009,

One Hundred Elevenths Congress of the United States of America,


United States Senator, Jay Rockfeller for West Virginia, "Rockfeller introduced legislation calling for universal adoption of electronic health records," April 23, 2009,

The Library of Congress,


David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem," 9 Mich. Telecomm.

Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003), page 377,


cites: Linux Today, "Venezuela's Government Shifts to Open Source Software," Brian Proffitt, August 30, 2002


236 Gregory Wilpert, "Venezuela's Public Administration Systems to Use Open Source Software," (posted December 30, 2004).


European Union Interchange of Data Between Administrations, "Venezuela is Moving Towards Open Source Software," (posted December 25,



Executive decree No. 3.390. Text available in Spanish at via


237 Cleto A. Sojo, "Venezuela Embraces Linux and Open Source Software, but Faces Challenges," (posted December 8, 2004).


238 Kenneth Wong, "Vietnam Adopts Formal FOSS Master Plan," International Open Source Network, posted at Asian Open Source Center, March 12, 2004.


Decision by the Prime Minister Approving the Master Plan "Applying and Developing Open Source Software in Vietnam for the 2004-2008 period," March 2,



Digital Review, "Latest Statistics and Open Source Promotion," Nguyen Trung Quynh, October 2003


Knight Ridder Newspapers "Open-source software clicks as Vietnam's piracy solution," Ben Stocking, December 7, 2003


239 David Legard, "Vietnam to spend $20M to push open-source software," IDG News Service. March 10, 2004.


240International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, "Open Source Software Policy Initiatives"



Proposal for the use of Open Technologies in the Government, "Legislation on the use of Free Software within the public administration in Argentina"


Bill 1416-D-02:

Bill 1499-03:

Bill 2801-04:


Company Correspondence(February 2004), Bill 207-D-2002:


244 Company Correspondence(February 2004)



"State backs open source with $50,000," Liat Etzman. Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia), CONNECT; Pg. C12. December 3, 2003


253Computer World, "Australian territory mandates open source consideration," Rodney Gedda. December 13, 2003


A.C.T. Legislation Register, Government Procurement (Principles) Guideline Amendment Act 2003


Link to Bill:


254ZDNet Australia, "Sun shines on NSW government desktops," Andrew Colley, October 28, 2003,2000048630,20280236,00.htm


255 ZD Net, "Democrats target Microsoft," Simon Hayes, July 22, 2003,6093,6788724,00.html


256NSW Legislative Council, excerpt on Open Source Software, April 6, 2005.


NSW Contract Information User Guides, Information Technology and Communciations


Australian IT, "Linux Advances on NSW." April 04, 2005. Available at Klikon Solutions:


LeMay , Renai. "NSW announces open-source software suppliers." ZDNet. 5 April 2005.,130061733,139187094,00.htm.


257 "Open source software: Perspectives for development," Dravis P (2003). The Dravis Group and World Bank InfoDev.


Bill Text: "State Supply (Procurement of Software) Amendment Bill 2003," BIL148-A.LCA,


Bill Status:


258 Michael Crawford, "Victorian government elects open source for e-democracy platform," Computer World, June 6, 2005.;1174965887;fp;16;fpid;0


259 "Minister Opens Open Source Demonstration Centre," Department of Industry and Resources, August 19, 2004,


260 Ingrid Marson, "Linux wins over Austria's capital,", January 26, 2005.,39024651,39127356,00.htm, "Open Source in Wien," September 10, 2003,



Le Groupe PS du Parlement Bruxellois (The Socialist Party of Brussels?), "Adoption de la proposition PS relative aux logiciels libres," (February 2003)



Association Electronique Libre, "Projet Ordonnance Libre,"



Amparo: and


Porto Alegre:


Sao Carlos:



Ribeirão Pires:,030,69,214,1191.html


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, "E-Commerce and Development Report 2003," Chapter 4: Free and open-source software: Implications

for ICT policy and development. Pages 114-5.


David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem,"

9 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003), page 376,


Company Correspondence(February 2004) "Open Source Software Poses Challenges for Public and Legal Policy," E-Business Law Bulletin, Volume 04; Issue

08. 17 March 2003


264David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem," Page 376.

9 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003),


265 Journal of Public Procurement, Volume 8, Issue 1, 70-97, 2008 - page 14-15



Journal of Public Procurement, Volume 8, Issue 1, 70-97, 2008 - page 3


267 Open Source Business Resource,May 2009: Open Source in Government:


268 Company Correspondence(February 2004)


269 Mato Grosso do Sol State Legislature, nº 001/2003:


270Company Correspondence(February 2004)


"Parana goes open source," Kable's Government Computing, June 30, 2004,


271Company Correspondence(February 2004)


272LinuxPR, "IBM Brazil Signs Agreement with Sao Paulo State Government to Train Government Officials in Open-Standard Based Software," November 29,



273Company Correspondence(February 2004)



CBC News, "City of Vancouver embraces open data, standards and source," May 29, 2009:



LinuxWorld, "Followup On Turku, Finland: City Approves Linux Pilot Program" December 20, 2001


"Finnish city abandons Linux, Open Office plans." The Inquirer. 26 August 2004.


277 "Free software: a common good in Brest," European Union Open Source Observatory, April 26, 2005,


278 Maeva Zebrowski, "Arles (France), in progression towards Open Source," European Union Open Source Observatory, May 28, 2005,


279 Jennifer L. Schenker, "Paris weighs a shift to open-source camp," International Herald Tribune, October 12, 2004.


"Paris Migration to Open Source: evolution, not revolution," European Union Open Source Observatory, October 13, 2004.


Sayer, Peter. "Paris accelerates move to open source." IDG News Service. 18 November 2005.



Source Biz, Open Source Business "News: Linux am Arbeitsplatz," post dated: November 18, 2003



Bill, R and Korduan, P. "Internet-GIS development for municipalities and the counties bases on open source software."


283 Seattle Post-Intelligencer, "German city favors Linux over Microsoft," November 28, 2002.


"Provincial German town drops Microsoft for Linux." USA Today. 24 March 2003.


284 "German Region of Frisia migrates to Open Source Software" European Union Open Source Observatory, June 17, 2005,


285CNet, "One City's Move to Open Source," Ingrid Marson. December 05, 2005.


286CNET, "Munich breaks with Windows for Linux," Stephen Shankland. May 28, 2003,, "Big Strides for Civic Linux," June 17, 2004, Sean Michael Kerner.


City of Munich Press Release, 18 June 2004:


John Blau, "Munich migrates to Linux despite EU debate," IDG News Service, September 30, 2004, Available at Computerworld,,10801,96288,00.html


287 Skankland, Stephen. "Munich breaks with Windows for Linux." CNET. 28 May 2003.


289, "Goa Govt. Adopts Linux," Posted June 19, 2002. Department of Information Technology Circular:


290The Hindu, "Kerala's draft IT policy released", January 18, 2007


291Tan, Aaron. "India's Kerala state goes open source." CNET. 29 June 2007. 6194118.html?tag=fd_nbs_enttag=nl.e703


292Vaishnavi C. Sekhar, "State govt logs on to cost-cutting drive," TheTimes of India, April 19, 2005,


293Seetharaman, Akhila. "Open source software, boon for e-governance." The Hindu. 25 May 2005. Tan, Aaron. "India's Kerala state goes open source." CNET.

29 June 2007. 6194118.html?tag=fd_nbs_enttag=nl.e703



Marzano, Flavia. "Italian and Regional Laws for libre software in government." 18 November 2004.


297David S. Evans and Bernard J. Reddy, "Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem,"

9 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 313 (2003), page 376-7,


Associazione Software Libero, "Mozione della Provincia di Pescara," April 2002,


Marzano, Flavia. "Italian and Regional Laws for libre software in government." 18 November 2004.


298La Repubblica, "Il Comune di Roma avanti piano verso Linux," Alessio Balbi, February 26, 2004


299 "Rome contest for young Open Source software programmers." IDABC. 28 February 2007.


EU Interchange of Data between Administrations (IDA), "Tuscany on the way of Open Source," January 2004


Link to Bill (Proposta di Legge Regionale n. 186):




Other Story found at ANSA:


301 Associazione Software Libero, "Free Software in Public Administration,"


For Florence: InterLex, "Il Comune di Firenze per il software libero," July 26, 2001,

Text of Agreement:


For Torino (Turin): Text of Motion:



Company Correspondence(February 2004)


304 Business Plan for Nagasaki:


305 "The state of Terengganu, Malaysia to copy Extremadura model," Asia Open Source Centre, February 17, 2005.


"Open Source Software (OSS) Launching Ceremony at Kuala Terenganu District Office."


306Europa IDA, "Eindhoven Reduces Expenses with Open Source," November 30, 2004,


Original source:


307Computable, "Amsterdam beproeft open source Open Office," Gijs Hillenius, October 16, 2003


308Sayer, Peter. "Amsterdam tests open source software." InfoWorld. 28 December 2006.


310 Michael Nagler "Dutch Municipality of Haren Migrating to Open Source Software" European Union Open Source Observatory, April 18, 2005.


311 "Norway's second city embraces Linux," ZDNet UK, June 15, 2004.,39020330,39157677,00.htm;


"Norwegian city undertakes one of the largest Linux migrations in Europe," European Union Open Source Observatory, November 15, 2004.


312 "Linux in Oslo high schools," European Union Open Source Observatory, November 2003.


313 BOJA Numero 55 del 21/Mar/03, Capitulo III, Articulo 31, "Software Libre"


HISPALinux, "Andalusian Regional Goverment truly involves with Free Software," March 24, 2003


314 "Asturian Government to Deploy Open Source in Public Administration," European Union Open Source Observatory, December 10, 2004


Europa Press, "El Gobierno asturiano anuncia la implantacion de software libre en los sistemas informaticos de su administracion." Nov 25, 2004


"Barcelona City Council IS/IT Strategy 2004-2007 includes Open Source initiatives," European Union Open Source Observatory,

December 10, 2004.


"Barcelona embraces Open Source." IDABC. 8 July 2005.


317CNET, "Governments push open-source software," Paul Festa, August 29, 2001


Boletin Oficial Del Parlamento De Canarias, V LEGISLATURA NÚM. 166, July 20, 2001


319 "Catalan Ministry of Education announces a call for open source software distribution for schools," European Union Open Source Observatory,

October 15, 2004.


322 "Spanish region goes entirely open source." TechWorld 1 August 2006.

Wired News, "Extremadura Measures: Linux," April 19, 2002,1367,51994,00.html

Edmonton Journal, "Ole! Spanish schools adopt free software and save a bundle: Microsoft-free strategy uses Linux to help region become wired",

Peter Hum, 17 May 2004. (found via Factiva)

Washington Post, "Europe's Microsoft Alternative," November 03, 2002

EU IDA, "FLOSS deployment in Extremadura, Spain"


323 "Galicia starts Open Source software repository." IDABC. 24 January 2007.


325 Company Correspondence(February 2004)


326 "Spanish administrators take a bold stance on Open Source Software," European Union Open Source Observatory, May 26, 2005.


327 Heise Online, "Swiss Tax Office distributes OpenOffice and Mozilla," February 14, 2003.


328PCTipp, "Stadt Zürich: Umstieg auf Open-Source-Software?" September 04, 2003


330 451 CAOS Theory, A blog for the enterprise open source community,



Company Correspondence(February 2004)


332 Andy McCue, "Linux-shy public sector gets open source test lab,", June 20, 2005.,39024651,39131293,00.htm


333 Company Correspondence(February 2004)


334 Sherriff, Lucy. "Newham and Microsoft sign 10-yr deal." The Register. 16 August 2004., "UK councils dump Windows for Linux," Derek Parkinson, June 6, 2003,39020645,2135726,00.htm


336, "Police put Linux on trial," Graham Hayday, October 16, 2002.,39020381,2123999,00.htm


337 Company Correspondence(February 2004)


338 Chris Preimesberger, "Alabama lastest state to present open source software bill," NewsForge, March 2, 2004,


Open Source and Industry Alliance, "Roundup of Selected OSS Legislative Activity Worldwide," 2005,


339 Arizona State Legislator,


Stephen Shankland, "Oregon angles for open-source businesses," CNET, January 26, 2005,


341 "2004 California Performance Review,"


Open Source and Industry Alliance, "Roundup of Selected OSS Legislative Activity Worldwide," 2005,


343Hawaii State Legislature: Senate Concurrent Resolution 109

Bill Text:

Bill Status:


345 Massachusetts IT Commission report "Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Enterprise IT Strategy". February 27, 2003


State of Massachusetts IT Bulletin, "IT Commission Releases Recommendations."


346Associated Press, "In open source gain, Bay State locks horns with Microsoft." Justin Pope, October 19, 2003.


Memo, "The Capital Budget." Eric Kriss, Secretary, Administration Finance, September 29, 2003.


347Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office for Administration and Finance, "Enterprise Information Technology Acquisition Policy," January 13, 2004


eWeek, "Mass. Softens Stance on Proprietary Software," Darryl K. Taft, January 14, 2004.,4149,1436253,00.asp


348Enterprise Technical Reference Model - Version 3.5, Effective September 21, 2005. See specifically the Integration Domain.



Montalbano, Elizabeth. "Massachusetts adds Open XML to open formats list." IDG News Service. 2 July 2007.


349 LaMonica, Martin. "Microsoft document formats gain Mass. Favor." CNET. 2 July 2007.



Department of Employment and Economic Development, Minnesota, "Metro IT professionals receive open source training with state grant,"


Bill A08817 from 2003-2004 Regular Session, New York State Legislature:


353 Lai, Eric. "Bill seeks study of open document formats in New York. Computerworld. 7 June 2007.



Bill HB 1627, Oklahoma State Legislature:


Open Source and Industry Alliance, "Roundup of Selected OSS Legislative Activity Worldwide," 2005,


357 The State Chamber of Oklahoma, "Oklahoma house interim studies announced (link to senate studies also),


Oregon State Legislature. SB 941, "Relating to software acquisitions by state government"


For Bill Status:


359 Todd R. Weiss, "Oregon bill touts open-source option," Computerworld, March 11, 2003,,10801,79258,00.html



Information Week ,"Massachusetts builds open-source public trough," March 18, 2004,

362Texas State Senate. SB 1579 - Legislative Session: 78(R) 2003


The Cowtown Chronicles, "Open documents standards proposed in Texas legislature," March 19, 2009,

Texas Legislature Online,


Vote Trust USA, "Wisconsin, VVPB/Open source bill sent to assembly," November 4, 2005,


Government Open Source Collaborative,


James Andrew Lewis
Senior Vice President; Pritzker Chair; and Director, Strategic Technologies Program

Robert Hinck, Philip Kimmey, Joshua Roberts, Dima Qassim, and Denise Zheng