Articles, Chapters, and Research by James A. Lewis


  • “Understanding ANT, Big Data, and CFIUS,” CSIS, January 2018
  • “Rethinking Cybersecurity: Strategy, Mass Effect, and States,” CSIS, January 2018
  • “Economic Impact of Cybercrime - No Slowing Down,” McAfee, February 2018
  • “Telecom and National Security,” CSIS, March 2018
  • “Russia and Critical Infrastructure: You ‘Should Not Threaten a Nuclear Power’” March 2018


  • “From Awareness to Action: A Cybersecurity Agenda for the 45th President,” CSIS, January 2017
  • “Red Herring,” Harpers, January 2017
  • “Catastrophic Attack and ‘Reasonable Probability’,” CSIS, February 2017
  • “How the CIA-WikiLeaks Drama Could Reignite the DC-Silicon Valley Feud,” Fortune, March 2017
  • “Sketching the Contours of Cyberconflict in Asia,” IAPS Dialogue, March 2017
  • “China’s Information Controls, Global Media Influence, and Cyber Warfare Strategy,” U.S. China Security and Economic Review Commission, May 2017
  • “Essence of Indecision,” CSIS, June 2017
  • “Sustaining Progress in International Negotiations on Cybersecurity,” Center for International Governance Innovation, July 2017
  • “China and Technology: Tortoise and Hare Again,” CSIS, August 2017
  • “The Truth About a Cyber Pearl Harbor,” CNN, August 2017
  • “The Devil Was in the Details: The Failure of UN efforts in Cyberspace,” Cipher Brief, August 2017
  • “Revitalizing Progress in International Negotiations on Cybersecurity,” Centre for International Governance Innovation, September 2017
  • “The Likelihood of North Korean Cyber Attacks,” CSIS, September 2017
  • “European Union to Social Media: Regulate or Be Regulated,” CSIS, November 2017
  • “Fighting the Wrong Enemy, the Stalemate in Cybersecurity,” CipherBrief, November 2017


  • “Expanding International Norms after the U.S.-China Cyber Theft Agreement,” World Political Review, January 2016
  • Posturing and Politics for Encryption, CSIS, February 2016
  • Managing Risk for the Internet of Things, CSIS February 2016
  • North Korea’s cyber capability; in The Conventional Military Balance on the Korean Peninsula; 2016, IISS
  • “Establish an International Precedent for Sharing Encrypted Data,” New York Times, February 2016
  • “Confidence Building Measure in Cyberspace,” Organization of American States, February 2016
  • “Cyberspace and armed forces: the rationale for offensive cyber capabilities” ASPI, March 2016
  • “Encryption Myths and Fables, CSIS, March 2016
  • “Waiting for Skynet,” National Intelligence Council, April 2016
  • “Stability, Legitimacy, and the Internet,” National Intelligence Council, April 2016
  • “Rethinking Deterrence,” CSIS Brzezinski Institute on Geostrategy, May 2016
  • Drone Strikes: Complicated but Necessary,” CSIS, July 2016
  • “The US Really Does Want to Constrain Commercial Espionage: Why Does Nobody Believe It?” Lawfare July 2016
  • “The Need for Biometrics Goes Beyond Banks,” New York Times, July 2016
  • “Report of the International Security Cyber Issues Workshop Series,” UNIDIR, August 2016
  • “Russia and the DNC Hacks,” CSIS Commentary, August 2016
  • “German Bundestag’s 1st Committee of Enquiry on NSA Activities,” CSIS, September 2016
  • “Cybersecurity’s Role in Maritime Operations” International Seapower Symposium,” CSIS, September 2016
  • ‘What role should values play in American strategy?’ CSIS Global Forecast, December 2016
  • “How Russia overtook China as our biggest cyber enemy,” Washington Post, December 2016
  • “How to Really Punish Russia for Hacking,” The Daily Beast, December 2016
  • “Cybersecurity Strategy in the Age of Russian Hacking, World Political Review, December 2016


  • The Role of Offensive Cyber Operations in NATO's Collective Defence, Tallinn Papers, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, March 2015.
  • U.S.-Japan Cooperation in Cybersecurity, CSIS, (October 2015).
  • “IRS data theft not surprising,” CNN, May 2015
  • “Hackers Don’t Want to Crash Stock Exchanges, They Want To Make Money On Them,” Washington Post, July 2015
  • “We Wuz Robbed,” CSIS, July 2015
  • “Moving Forward with the Obama-Xi Cybersecurity Agreement,” CSIS, October 2015
  • “Measuring Cybersecurity Success at the Summit,” CSIS, October 2015
  • “Next Steps on Sanctions,” CSIS, September 2015
  • Cyber Confidence Building and Diplomacy in Latin America and the Caribbean, Organization of American States, Spring 2015
  • “You Still have Zero Privacy: Get over it,” GE Reports, August 2015
  • “North Korea and Sony: Why So Much Doubt and What About Deterrence?” 38North, January 2015
  • “’Compelling Opponents to Our Will” The role of cyber warfare in Ukraine” NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, forthcoming, 2015.


  • “Deterrence in the Cyber Age,” CSIS, November 2014
  • “2014 as the Year of Encryption: A (Very) Brief History of Encryption Policy,” CSIS
  • January 2014
  • “Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms,” CSIS, January 2014
  • “Factors influencing the advancement of China's military technology,” U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, January 2014
  • “Idols of the Tribe,” University of Toronto Munk School of Global Affairs Cyber Dialogue, February 2104
  • “What do the Snowden Leaks Mean for Cyberspace and Governance?” CSIS, March 2014
  • “NIST Cybersecurity Framework: Trust but Verify,” CSIS April 2014
  • “Greatest Harm of Snowden Leaks Has Been to American Pride,” World Politics Review, April 2014
  • “Cybercrime is big money for hackers,” CNN, May 2014
  • “Chinese cyber-attacks 'not a parallel with NSA spying” Deutsche Welle, May 2014
  • “Hard Choices for Manned Spaceflight; America as Icarus,” CSIS May 2014
  • “National Perceptions of Cyber Threats,” Strategic Analysis, June 2014
  • “Net Losses: Estimating the Global Loss of Cybercrime,” McAfee, June 2014
  • “Cyber Tensions: Putting the Indictments for Cyber Espionage in Context,” American Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai, July 2014
  • “Space Exploration in a Changing National Environment,” CSIS, July 2014
  • “How the Internet Became a Focal Point for Espionage,” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, August 2014
  • What’s Next in Cybersecurity? 1776, August 2014
  • “China in Space: Carrying Forward the Spirit of Two Bombs and One Satellite,” China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham, October 2014
  • “Heartbleed and the State of Cybersecurity,” American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, November 2014
  • “The key to keeping cyberspace safe? An international accord,” Washington Post, October 2014
  • “Economic Warfare and Cyberspace,” Australian Strategic Policy Institute, November 2014
  • “Sovereignty and Governance, Observer Research Foundation, forthcoming



  • “Stewardship, Security, and Cyberspace,” Munk School, February 2012
  • “Confidence Building and International Agreement in Cyber security,” United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), May 2012
  • Will America Defeat Itself? Ideas and National Power,” CSIS, May 2012
  • “Cybersecurity Legislation: Voluntary Failure,” Foreign Policy, August 2012
  • “Competition in Cyberspace: The Asian Context,” Lowy Institute, September 2012
  • “Ready Player One: Did the Pentagon just take over America's cybersecurity?,” Foreign Policy, October 2012
  • " Hubris and Self-Interest Rule ," Room for Debate, New York Times, October 2012
  • "China's Economic Espionage: Why It Worked in the Past But It Won't in the Future," Foreign Affairs, November 2012
  • In Defense of Stuxnet,” Institute for National Security Studies,” December, 2012
  • “Problems of Cybersecurity," International Economy, Fall, 2012
  • ‘The Limited Utility of Deterrence, Stimson Center, forthcoming


  • Cybersecurity After Two Years,” CSIS, January 2011
  • “Why Privacy and Cyber Security Clash,” in America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Volume II, June 2011, Center for a New American Security
  • "Mining Bin Laden's computer trove," Newsday, May 2011
  • Book Review: Richard Stiennon, Surviving Cyberwar, Journal of Intelligence and National Security, 2011
  • “Cyber-Security and US-China Relations,” China-US Focus, July 2011
  • “Assessing the Cyber Threat,” Government Executive Magazine, August 2011
  • “Cyber Attacks, Real or Imagined, and Cyber War,” CSIS, July 2011
  • "Thresholds for Cyberwarfare," IEEE Security & Privacy, September 2011
  • “Cybersecurity and Cyberwarfare: Preliminary Assessment of National Doctrine and Organization,” United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), October 2011
  • “China in Space: Implication of the Space Module Docking,” China-US Focus November 2011
  • “Economic Espionage,” CSIS, December 2011
  • “Harnessing Leviathan - The International Context for Cybersecurity,” Aspen Institute


  • “Technology and Geopolitics,” International Security Forum Special Reports, January 2010
  • “Can Google Beat China,” New York Times, January 2010
  • “China’s Google Scandal,” Huffington Post, January 2010
  • “Google and China: ‘Top of the World, Ma....’," CSIS, March 2010
  • “To Protect the U.S. Against Cyberwar, Best Defense Is a Good Offense,” US News and World Report, March 2010
  • “Sovereignty and the Role of Government in Cyberspace,Brown Journal of International Affairs, Spring 2010
  • “The Cyber War has Not Begun, CSIS, March 2010
  • “A Note on the Laws of War in Cyberspace,” CSIS, April 2010
  • “A New Priority for Space,” Space News, May 2010
  • “Climate Change and Earth Observation,” CSIS, June 2010
  • “Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict,” Arms Control Today, June, 2010
  • “Cyberwarfare and its Impact on International Security,” United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), Occasional Paper No. 19, June 2010
  • “Deterrence and Credible threats,” CSIS, June 2010
  • “International Cybersecurity in Transition,” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, forthcoming
  • “North Korea: Speak Loudly and Carry a Small Stick,” 38North, September 2010
  • “Cyber War and Cyber Defense: We Depend on the Kindness of Strangers,” Ambassadors Review, September 2010
  • “Engagement and Sustainability in the 2010 National Space Policy,” CSIS, November 2010


  • “Authentication 2.0 - New Opportunities for Online Identification,” CSIS, January 2008
  • “Space Security and Negotiations-Turn the Table,” Space News May 2009
  • “Read My Tweet on Iran,” CSIS Critical Questions, June 2009
  • “The “Korean Cyber Attacks’ and Their Implications for Cyber Conflict,” CSIS, October 2009
  • “The Fog of Cyber War,” International Security Forum Special Reports, November 2009
  • “Time to Enclose the Commons - International Agreement and Cyberspace,” International Affairs Forum, December 2009


  • “Regulating the Wealth of Nations: Foreign Investment and Sovereign Wealth,” The Policy Monitor, February 2008
  • “Satellite Shoot Down,” Google News, February, 2008
  • “Ignorance is Bliss,” Space News, March 2008
  • “Potential Global Strategic Catastrophes - Crises in Cyberspace” Geneva Center for Security Policy, November 2008
  • “Securing Cyberspace for the 44th Presidency: Report of the CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity,” CSIS, December 2008


  • “Foreign Influence on Software: Risks and Recourse,” CSIS, March 2007
  • “China’s Military Modernization and its Impact on the United States and Asia Pacific Region,” Report of the U.S. China Security Review Commission, December 2007
  • “Neither Mahan Nor Mitchell: National Security Space and Space Power, 1945-2000” in Space Power, National Defense University, forthcoming
  • “Between the U.S. and China: the Current Dynamics of Military Space,” Politique Etrangere, 2;2007 Institut Francais des Relations Internationales,
  • “Building an Information Technology Industry in China: National Strategy, Global Markets,” CSIS, May 2007
  • “IP and Development,” Intellectual Property Watch, May 2007
  • “China’s Military Modernization,” Quanxi, Summer 2007
  • “There’s No Such Thing As Cyberterror,” “The Atlantic Community,” July 30, 2007
  • “Critical Questions: Domestic Surveillance, FISA, and Terrorism,” CSIS, November 7, 2007
  • “Innovation and Intellectual Property in the Knowledge Economy,” December, 2007
  • “Space and Power,” Space News, December 17, 2007


  • “The War on Hype,” San Francisco Chronicle, February, 2006
  • “Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Terrorism: Mass Destruction or Mass Annoyance?” in Transatlantic Homeland Security? Protecting Society in the Age of Catastrophic Terrorism, Routledge, 2006
  • “Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition,” CSIS, March 2006
  • “Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection,” inHomeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets, Praeger, June 2006
  • “National Policies to Strengthen Innovation and Growth in North America,” CSIS, September 2006
  • “Cooperation in Space,” Space News, September 2006


  • “A Measured Response to Europe,” Space News, April 2005
  • “Beyond CFIUS,” Federal Communications Law Journal, Spring 2005
  • “The Limits of Arms Transfer Restraint,” Arms Control Today, November, 2005
  • “The Internet and Terrorism,” Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Society for International Law, 2005
  • “China as a Military Space Power,” George Washington University Space Policy Institute, (December, 2005)
  • “The Internet and Security,” in The Internet and Democracy,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2005


  • “Beyond Evolution: Modernizing Air Traffic Management (with Anne Witkowsky), CSIS Press, May, 2004
  • “Galileo and GPS: From Competition to Cooperation,” in “Le Mani Sullo Spazio,” Limes Rivista Italiana Geopolitica, Fall 2004
  • “Netcentric Approaches to Port Security,” Stevens Institute of Technology, September 2004
  • “Globalization and National Security, CSIS Press, (November 2004)
  • “Aux Armes, Citoyens: Cyber Security and Regulation in the United States,” Telecommunications Policy, (Fall 2005)


  • “The Place and Role of Technology in Framing the Balance of Power on the International Scene,” Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique, March 2003
  • International Cooperation in Cyber Security , CSIS, August 2003
  • “Cyber Terror: Missing in Action,” in Knowledge, Technology & Policy, Fall, 2003
  • “Spectrum Management for the 21st Century,” CSIS Press, October 2003
  • “Critical Infrastructure Protection - With All Deliberate Speed,” George Mason University CIP Report, December 2003


  • “Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats,” CSIS December 2002
  • “Export Controls/Dual Use Technology and Technology Transfer Issues,” Report of the U.S. China Security Review Commission, July, 2002
  • “Perils and Prospects for Internet Self Regulation,” Internet Society Proceedings, August 2002
  • “Surveillance and Security,” Internet Society Proceedings, August 2002
  • “Making America’s Homeland More Secure,” Insight Magazine, November 2002