The rise of large digital platforms has promoted new thinking around the world on whether competition policy and law are suitable for the digital era. The European Union has developed a landmark law, the Digital Markets Act (DMA), which requires so-called gatekeepers—large digital services providers—to adhere to ex ante competition policy rules that preempt various potential future behaviors.

One prominent concern the CSIS Scholl Chair in International Business and others have highlighted is that these types of laws may have counterproductive effects, such as raising the costs of digital services for small business and end consumers. Another concern is that these types of laws often primarily target large U.S. digital service providers and thus inadvertently are discriminatory—and even hand market share, for example, to Chinese technology giants.

The purpose of this digital report and accompanying reports and blogs is to examine the status, spread, and characteristics of similar digital competition policy laws and legislative proposals emerging in 30 leading economies around the world.

The map details the status of digital competition policy in different countries (pre-study, study, guidelines, bill, or law). It includes snapshots of the relevant documents in countries that have published studies, bills, or laws on digital competition issues, such as of specific laws and proposals, as well as outside commentary on them.

The graphics seek to capture the various competition policy elements included in the laws, bills, or studies.

These data are updated monthly between April 2024 and March 2025.

Current and future reports and blogs will expand on the actual and potential implications of these policy changes, including discriminatory impact on U.S. companies.[1]

A longer report providing insight into the policy trends will be available in May 2024.

This report is made possible through generous support from the Computer & Communications Industry Association.

[1]For current commentary and reports, see, for example, Meredith Broadbent, “UK Digital Markets, Competition and Consumers Bill: Extraterritorial Regulation Affecting the Tech Investment Climate,” CSIS, Commentary, March 4, 2024; Kati Suominen, “New Costs and Cybersecurity Challenges Flagged as DMA Compliance Starts,” CSIS Commentary, March 22, 2024; William Alan Reinsch and Kati Suominen, “Korea’s Move to Ex Ante Competition Regulation Discriminates against U.S. Business,” CSIS, Commentary, January 11, 2024; William Alan Reinsch and Kati Suominen, “Are U.S. Digital Platforms Facing a Growing Wave of Ex Ante Competition Regulation?,” CSIS, Commentary, June 21, 2023; and Kati Suominen, Implications of the European Union’s Digital Regulations on U.S. and EU Economic and Strategic Interests (Washington, DC: CSIS, November 22, 2022).

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