Essential Documents: Legal Opinions

Claire V. Eagen, Judge, U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
August 29, 2013
This ruling outlines the FISC's legal reasoning behind the authorization for the bulk collection of metadata under Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act.
Mary A. McLaughlin, Judge, U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
October 11, 2013
This FISC ruling adopts Judge Eagens previous legal reasoning, and expands upon it to authorize Section 215 bulk metadata collection for another 90 days.
Judge Richard Leon
U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
December 16, 2013
In this opinion, Judge Leon rules that NSA domestic bulk metadata collection program is unconstitutional.
Judge William H. Pauley III
U.S. District Court for the Souther District of New York
December 27, 2013
In this opinion, Judge Pauley rules that the NSA domestic bulk metadata collection program legal.
Reggie B Walton, Presiding Judge, U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
March 7, 2013
Consistent with the primary order from January 3, 2013 requring the minimization of all call records more than five years old, this ruling approves the elimination of such records despite their potential relevance to ongoing civil litigation over the bulk metadata collection programs.
Judge Jeffery S. White
March 10, 2013
This order temporarily prevents the NSA from destroying digital records over five years old, per the requirment of the previous FISC ruling.