New technologies will determine how future conflicts are fought and won. This is especially true for the U.S. military, which emphasizes network-centric operations in its pursuit of security objectives in the traditional domains of land, sea and air, and in the emerging domain of cyberspace. Enabled by new technologies such as automation, a “light footprint” approach to warfighting has also been of interest to U.S. military and civilian leaders facing fiscal constraints and more complex operational environments. Further, the ability of state and non-state actors to operate with a high-degree of sophistication and to threaten civilian and defense networks continues to be a challenge for the Armed Services and their various component commands tasked with preserving network integrity. CSIS will examine the nexus between technologies with defense applications and emerging challenges to combat effectiveness.