Frank Miller served from January 2001 to March 2005 as a special assistant to President George W. Bush and as senior director for defense policy and arms control on the National Security Council staff. At the White House he was responsible for a wide range of presidential policy initiatives related to nuclear deterrence policy, strategic arms reductions, national space policy, defense trade reform, land mines, and transforming the U.S. and NATO militaries. He directed interagency support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. During his 31-year career in government, Miller has had unusual influence on the evolution of national deterrence and nuclear targeting policy, as well as on the START 1 and START 2 treaties, and he was instrumental in forging important new relationships with the British. He was deeply involved in improving U.S. capabilities to address biological and chemical weapons threats; in enhancing defense relations with Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan; in building the basis for U.S. and NATO strategic and tactical missile defense programs; in national reconnaissance and space policy; and in submarine operations policy. He has also served as the chair of NATO’s nuclear policy committee and of NATO’s counterproliferation policy committee.