This special "best of ChinaPower" episode unpacks China’s push to develop a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). Our guest, Dr. Kevin Desouza, explains Beijing's motives and compares China’s plans for creating its own national digital currency with those of other countries. Dr. Desouza explores how a national digital currency can be used to bolster China’s finance and technology sectors, as well as its economy as a whole. He also offers his views on what China’s timeline might be for rolling out its own CBDC, particularly in light of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Dr. Kevin Desouza is a professor of Business, Technology, and Strategy in the School of Management at the Queensland University of Technology Business School. Dr. Desouza is also a Nonresident Senior Fellow in the Governance Studies Program at the Brookings Institution, and a Distinguished Research Fellow at the China Institute for Urban Governance at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He has held tenured faculty appointments at the University of Washington, Virginia Tech, and Arizona State University.
This episode was first released on May 19, 2020. Listeners can find Bonnie Glaser's new work with her China Global podcast.
In this special "best of ChinaPower" episode, Mr. Ankit Panda discusses China's growing conventional missile arsenal and associated implications for military strategy and security in the Indo-Pacific region. He touches on the role of China’s ground-based missiles in the projection of military strength, noting that an increased arsenal can hamper US forces in the region and give the People’s Liberation Army increased maneuverability. Mr. Panda specifically highlights the importance of anti-ship ballistic missiles to China’s anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) strategy in areas like the South and East China Seas. He also discusses the consequences of the US withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and the political obstacles to expanding the US’ arsenal along China’s periphery. In addition, he explains the strategic implications of China's dual-capable missile force, specifically the DF-26 missile’s ability to rapidly convert between nuclear and conventional warheads. Finally, Mr. Panda analyzes the role of hypersonic glide vehicles, noting that, while the underlying technology is not new, advances in materials science have allowed more countries to develop HGV systems.
Ankit Panda is the Stanton Senior Fellow in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. An expert on the Asia-Pacific region, his research interests range from nuclear strategy, arms control, missile defense, nonproliferation, emerging technologies, and US extended deterrence. He is the author of Kim Jong Un and the Bomb: Survival and Deterrence in North Korea.
This episode was first released on December 8, 2020. Listeners can find Bonnie Glaser's new work with her China Global podcast.
In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Malin Oud joins us to discuss the importance of language in understanding China’s diplomatic and international cooperation strategies. Ms. Oud breaks down China’s efforts to both redefine international values and standards, such as “democracy,” “rule of law” and “human rights," and promote its own definitions when interacting with other nations via diplomacy and international cooperation. She argues that China’s efforts to both weaken current international norms and promote its own norms on the global stage indicates that China has growing confidence in itself and its political system. This increased confidence, Ms. Oud explains, has increased China’s desire to build its discursive power, and become a “rule maker” rather than a “rule taker.” Lastly, Ms. Oud states that when Western nations engage with China, they need to not only understand what China means when it uses the language of international values and standards, but also strengthen their own, domestic capabilities so as to meaningfully defend current standards and international norms.
Malin Oud is the Director of the Stockholm Office of the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. She was the founder and Managing Director of Tracktwo, Sweden, and was previously the Programme Manager for the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Her most recent report, The Decoding China Dictionary, co-edited with Katja Drinhausen, was published earlier this year by the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and International Law.
In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Dr. Agatha Kratz joins us to discuss how the Covid-19 pandemic has affected China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Dr. Kratz provides background on the history and past successes of the BRI from 2013-2020. She argues that, prior to the pandemic, China’s BRI was at a low point. There were fewer contracts and increased scrutiny on past unsustainable projects and loans. Dr. Kratz contends that those pre-existing trends were further accentuated by the Covid-19 travel restrictions, deteriorated financial conditions, and disruptions in trade. Nonetheless, she explains, new BRI projects have arisen as a result of the pandemic, such as the “Health Silk Road”.
Lastly, Dr. Kratz identifies the core problem with the BRI to be the long-lasting debt – which can lead to debt crises – in recipient countries. China’s common practice of debt renegotiations, rather than debt forgiveness, creates a further disincentive. Together, they slow the appetite for further BRI projects. Alternatively, she explains, recipient countries have begun to seek more sustainable and profitable projects.
Dr. Agatha Kratz is an Associate Director at Rhodium Group, where she coordinates European activities and leads research on European Union-China relations and China’s commercial diplomacy. She also contributes to Rhodium’s work on China’s global investment, industrial policy, and technology aspirations. Dr. Kratz is a non-resident Adjunct Fellow of the Reconnecting Asia Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies under the Simon Chair in Political Economy.
In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Stella Hong Zhang joins us to discuss China’s new model of international development cooperation. Ms. Zhang analyzes China’s January 2021 white paper titled “China’s International Development Cooperation in the New Era”, the shift in China’s international development policy, and the implications that this shift has for both China and other nations around the world. She argues that the policy changes reflect China’s goal to be seen as a leader in global governance and its aim to shape discourse on China's domestic governance model and development achievements. Similarly, Ms. Zhang contends that this shift in China’s international development policy must be understood as part of Xi Jinping’s more assertive foreign policy and emphasis on expanding China’s relationships with other developing nations. Lastly, Ms. Zhang explains that China’s decision to frame its international development cooperation policy in moral language plays strongly to a domestic audience that is skeptical of providing resources to other countries while China itself is still developing.
Stella Hong Zhang is a PhD candidate at the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University. She previously served as an international journalist for China’s Caixin media. Her research interests include China’s role in international development, the internationalization of China’s development state, and the overseas expansion of China’s state-owned enterprises.
In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Ambassador Derek Mitchell joins us to discuss the implications of the 2021 Myanmar coup for China-Myanmar relations. Ambassador Mitchell analyzes the current state of China-Myanmar relations, describes its historical development, and outlines China’s interests within the region after the coup. Ambassador Mitchell also examines which areas the United States and China can cooperate in Myanmar and which areas they likely cannot. He argues that while China faces widespread public antagonism amongst the population in Myanmar, it still commands significant influence due to the investments that it has made in Myanmar as part of the Belt and Road Initiative, as well as its continued association with communist groups in northeastern Myanmar. Nonetheless, Ambassador Mitchell contends that Myanmar is not without leverage when it comes to interacting with China, as it can make use of its relations with Japan, Europe, the United States, and even Russia to prevent China from developing a monopolizing influence.
Ambassador Derek Mitchell is currently the president of the National Democratic Institute. He has previously served as the United States Ambassador to Myanmar, the first U.S. Special Representative and Policy Coordinator for Burma, and the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asian and Pacific Security Affairs. Ambassador Mitchell was previously a senior fellow, director for Asia, and director of the Southeast Asia Initiative at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
In this episode, Dr. Luke Patey joins us to discuss the implications of China’s rise in a dynamic world and how the rest of the world should respond. Dr. Patey challenges the idea that an ascendant China will lead to a world in which small developing countries become a sphere of influence for China. Alternatively, he contends smaller nations are not content to play a subservient role and there is room for pushback when China overreaches. He stresses that middle powers such as Japan and India can play a significant role in shaping global affairs and the global economy. In addition, Dr. Patey contends that in advanced democracies, China’s economic power and its willingness to use that power are often exaggerated. Lastly, Dr. Patey argues national leaders should escape the hawks-and-doves dichotomy, explaining that the importance of China demands more nuance because various countries’ business, political, and security relations with China are interconnected.
Dr. Luke Patey is a senior researcher at the Danish Institute for International Studies and a lead senior research fellow of the Africa oil and gas program at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. He is the author of How China Loses: The Pushback Against Chinese Global Ambitions. His current research focuses on China's foreign and security policy and Chinese foreign investment and trade, with a focus on China’s relations in Europe, Africa, and East Asia.
On this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Mr. Peter Martin joins us to discuss his recent book, "China's Civilian Army: The Making of Wolf Warrior Diplomacy." Chinese diplomacy in the past several years has become more assertive and its diplomats have used sharper language --hence the name wolf warrior diplomacy which comes from a Chinese film. Peter Martin's research traces the roots of wolf warrior diplomacy to the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its first diplomat, Zhou Enlai. Martin discusses China's diplomacy today and its impact. He explains that although there are some critics in China of wolf warrior diplomacy, it is popular among the general public amid rising nationalist sentiment in the country. In addition, Mr. Martin discusses how both public opinion and the directives of Xi Jingping have combined to force China’s diplomatic corps to be assertive players in international relations. Lastly, Mr. Martin describes the motivations behind wolf-warrior diplomacy and how diplomats are being rewarded for their aggressive rhetoric and posture.
Mr. Peter Martin is a political reporter for Bloomberg News. Mr. Martin has written extensively about China and U.S.-China relations. His latest book is, “China’s Civilian Army: The Making of Wolf Warrior Diplomacy,” which will be published in April 2021.
In this episode, Dr. Roslyn Layton and Dr. James Lewis discuss how to control the proliferation of technologies for military use with a special focus on China. Our guests explain the history of US export policy regarding advanced technology, noting the delicate balance between opportunities for private enterprise and the needs of national security. They describe the Wassenar Agreement and its impact on current US advanced technology exports to China. Dr. Layton argues in favor of US designation of companies as military-end-users in China as one method to prevent US technology from being transferred to China’s military. Dr. Lewis analyzes China’s progress in its semiconductor industry, noting that China is still dependent on Western technology. Our guests also interpret China’s actions in retaliation to international technology export restrictions. Lastly, our guests evaluate how the Trump administration has acted in its approach to China and recommend actions the incoming Biden administration should take.
Dr. Roslyn Layton is a visiting researcher at Aalborg University Center for Communication, Media, and Information Technologies and Senior Vice President at Strand Consult. Dr. Layton focuses on evidence-based policy for the information, communications, and digital technology industries. Dr. James Lewis is a senior vice president and director of the Strategic Technologies Program at CSIS. He has authored numerous publications on the relationship between technology, innovation, and national power.
This special episode of the ChinaPower podcast is the last of five featuring the audio from the China Power Project's fifth annual conference, which comprises five live online debates.
Prior to the debate, Representative Rick Larsen delivered keynote remarks on the challenges and opportunities posed by China’s growing power and the view from Congress, followed by a Q&A conversation hosted by Bonnie Glaser, CSIS senior adviser for Asia and director of the China Power Project.
Representative Rick Larsen represents the Second Congressional District of Washington State. Representative Larsen is a co-chair of the bipartisan US-China Working Group, which educates Members of Congress about bilateral issues through meetings and briefings with academic, business, and political leaders from the US and China. Representative Larsen has visited China eleven times.
Following the keynote remarks, the China Power Project hosted a debate on the proposition: "Selective US-China economic decoupling will set back China’s emergence as a global high-tech leader."
The Trump administration has imposed restrictions on exports to leading Chinese telecom and semiconductor companies. In addition, the US has taken measures to encourage American companies to diversify their production and supply chains in order to reduce reliance on China. Given the interconnectedness of the global economy, these efforts could pose a challenge to the competitiveness of Chinese tech firms and manufacturers.
Matthew Turpin, Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, argued that US-China decoupling will set back China’s emergence as a global high-tech leader. Rebecca Fannin, Founder of Silicon Dragon Ventures, argued that US-China economic decoupling will not set back China’s emergence as a global high-tech leader.
This event is made possible by the generous support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.