Transatlantic Defense during Wartime

A Companion Volume to the 2023 CSIS Global Security Forum
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Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 set off a chain of events that has reverberated far beyond the borders of the conflict. Across Europe, a historic effort to rethink defense posture is underway as European states grapple with the implications of the conflict for their own security. Following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) Vilnius summit this past July, the transatlantic alliance requires long-term defense industrial investments to sustain the collective defense of all member-states. 

This report ties together three expert perspectives on the present situation and possible next steps. 

  • The second chapter, “Europe’s Defense Outlook 2030: Implications of an Increasingly Aligned Europe,” explores how Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has changed European threat perceptions and strategic outlooks before forecasting how these changes will shape European states for the remainder of the decade. 
  • The third chapter, “NATO’s Evolving Threat Landscape and Ability to Respond,” focuses on the role of NATO in European security and the intra-alliance dynamics that enable or impede a robust transatlantic response to Russian aggression. 
  • The fourth chapter, “Pivoting to Production? Europe’s Defense Industrial Opportunities,” analyzes the factors driving European defense integration, the tools needed to expand European defense collaboration, and the roles and responsibilities between European defense institutions in delivering capability to European warfighters.

The European Union and NATO have a precious opportunity to reorient their investments, build off recent progress, increase collaboration on acquisition, and better achieve goals for the United States and its European allies.

This report is made possible by the generous sponsorship of Leonardo DRS.

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Cynthia Cook
Director, Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group and Senior Fellow, International Security Program
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Max Bergmann
Director, Europe, Russia, and Eurasia Program and Stuart Center
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Gregory Sanders
Deputy Director and Fellow, Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group
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Sissy Martinez
Program Manager and Research Associate, Europe, Russia, and Eurasia Program
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Otto Svendsen
Research Associate, Europe, Russia, and Eurasia Program

Nicholas Velazquez

Research Assistant, Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group